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CAIRO (Reuters) - Investigators of the Russian plane crash in Egypt are “90 percent sure” the noise heard in the final second of a cockpit recording was an explosion caused by a bomb, a member of the investigation team told Reuters on Sunday.
The Airbus ( AIR.PA ) A321 crashed 23 minutes after taking off from the Sharm al-Sheikh tourist resort eight days ago, killing all 224 passengers and crew. Islamic State militants fighting Egyptian security forces in Sinai said they brought it down.
“The indications and analysis so far of the sound on the black box indicate it was a bomb,” said the Egyptian investigation team member, who asked not to be named due to sensitivities. “We are 90 percent sure it was a bomb.”
His comments reflect a much greater degree of certainty about the cause of the crash than the investigation committee has so far declared in public.
Lead investigator Ayman al-Muqaddam announced on Saturday that the plane appeared to have broken up in mid-air while it was being flown on auto-pilot, and that a noise had been heard in the last second of the cockpit recording. But he said it was too soon to draw conclusions about why the plane crashed.
Confirmation that militants brought down the airliner could have a devastating impact on Egypt’s lucrative tourist industry, which has suffered from years of political turmoil and was hit last week when Russia, Turkey and several European countries suspended flights to Sharm al-Sheikh and other destinations.
It could also mark a new strategy by the hardline Islamic State group which holds large parts of Syria and Iraq.
Asked to explain the remaining 10 percent margin of doubt, the investigator declined to elaborate, but Muqaddam cited other possibilities on Saturday including a fuel explosion, metal fatigue in the plane or lithium batteries overheating.
He said debris was scattered over a 13-km (8-mile) area “which is consistent with an in-flight break-up”.
“What happened in Sharm al-Sheikh last week, and to a lesser extent with the . (Germanwings) aircraft, are game changers for our industry,” Emirates Airlines President Tim Clark said, referring to the crash of a Germanwings airliner in the French Alps in March, believed crashed deliberately by its co-pilot.
“They have to be addressed at industry level because no doubt the countries -- U.S., Europe -- I would think will make some fairly stringent, draconian demands on the way aviation works with security,” he said at the Dubai Airshow.
Clark said he had ordered a security review but was not suspending any flights as a result of the disaster. Emirates does not operate regular flights to Sharm al-Sheikh.
British Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond also said the incident could lead to changes in flight security.
“If this turns out to be a device planted by an ISIL operative or by somebody inspired by ISIL, then clearly we will have to look again at the level of security we expect to see in airports in areas where ISIL is active,” Hammond told the BBC.
Islamic State, which wants to establish a caliphate in the Middle East, is also called ISIS or ISIL.
Islamic State militants fighting security forces in Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula have said they brought down the aircraft as revenge for Russian air strikes against Islamist fighters in Syria. They said they would eventually tell the world how they carried out the attack.
If the group was responsible, it would have carried out one of the highest profile killings since al Qaeda flew passenger planes into New York’s World Trade Center in September 2001.
Russia has returned 11,000 of its tourists from Egypt in the last 24 hours, RIA news agency said on Sunday, a fraction of the 80,000 Russians who were stranded by the Kremlin’s decision on Friday to halt all flights to Egypt.
In St Petersburg, where the flight was headed on Oct. 31, the bell of St Isaac’s Cathedral rang 224 times and a service was held in memory of the victims.
Russia has sent specialists to conduct a safety audit of Egypt’s airports and to provide recommendations on additional measures, Arkady Dvorkovich, deputy prime minister, was quoted as saying by Russian agencies.
Dvorkovich, the head of a government group created on Friday to deal with suspended flights to Egypt, added a second group was going to Egypt on Sunday and a third would be sent later.
Britain, which has 3,000 nationals waiting to return home, has sent a team of 70 people, including 10 aviation specialists working at Sharm al-Sheikh airport to make sure security measures are being followed.
Eight flights were expected to take British tourists back home on Sunday.
Additional reporting by Tim Hepher and Nadia Saleem in Dubai, Ahmed Aboulenein in Sharm al-Sheikh, William James in London, Denis Pinchuk in Moscow and Mikhail Antonov in St. Petersburg; Writing by Michael Georgy and Dominic Evans; Editing by Janet Lawrence
All quotes delayed a minimum of 15 minutes. See here for a complete list of exchanges and delays.
Built in 1971, the single-story industrial building at 130-15 91st Avenue in New York is a great choice for contractors looking to rent office space and production areas that will provide them with a full floor opportunity in Richmond Hill.
Located on the second floor, the commercial space at 130-15 91st Avenue in New York is within a short walking distance of public transit and amenities. The commercial space boasts air conditioning, an open floor plan and is within steps of the bus stop for the Q24 line for Broadway Junction-Jamaica.
Industrial space at 130-15 91st Avenue in New York enjoys natural light and is located in a part of Richmond Hill what is very walkable.
Neighborhood tenants include Nix Mix coffee shop, Deriver Restaurant, Little Brown Jug Inc Bar and Juan Deli Grocery.
130-15 91st Avenue in New York is an attractive building with excellent commercial potential. The property appears to have been well-maintained and makes a professional first impression on visitors.
According to recent filming permits, Sons of Anarchy is shooting the twelfth episode of their final season this week, which means there's only one show left to film before they wrap for good.Monday, Oct. 13 Filming Locations for Gotham, Batman V. Superman, Chicago PD, Scandal, & more!
Here’s a look at what’s filming on location for Monday, Oct. 13, 2014:
If you have any scoop about where a movie or TV show is filming, let us know about it at [email protected] o..Friday, Oct. 10 Filming Locations for Chicago Fire, Sleepy Hollow, Gotham, Eye Candy, SVU, & more!
Here’s a look at what’s filming on location for Friday, Oct. 10, 2014:
If you have any scoop about where a movie or TV show is filming, let us know about it at [email protected] o..‘Ted 2’ will be filming at New York Comic Con this weekend
It's no secret the plot of Ted 2 will involve a comic convention, and this weekend they'll be shooting some scenes at a real con for authenticity.
Filming permits have been spotted outside th..Liam Hemsworth begins filming ‘By Way of Helena’ in Mississippi
A new movie has transformed the Florewood State Park in Greenwood, MS into a frontier town straight out of the old west.
By Way of Helena is set in "the Great Plains of 1880s, Texas Ranger Da..Look out for Jake Gyllenhaal filming ‘Demolition’ in New York City this month
Earlier today, Jake Gyllenhaal was spotted filming his next movie, Demolition, at 250 Greenwich St in New York City.
The movie centers on a destructive investment banker who struggles to get ..Wednesday, Oct. 8 Filming Locations for Younger, Bad Judge, The Originals, Chicago Fire, Beauty and the Beast, Gotham, & more!
Here’s a look at what’s filming on location for Wednesday, Oct. 8, 2014:
If you have any scoop about where a movie or TV show is filming, let us know about it at [email protected]Tuesday, Oct. 7 Filming Locations for AHS: Freak Show, House of Cards, Ted 2, Gotham, The Blacklist, Scandal, Parenthood, Castle, & more!
Here’s a look at what’s filming on location for Tuesday, Oct. 7, 2014:
If you have any scoop about where a movie or TV show is filming, let us know about it at [email protected] o..‘Bone Tomahawk’, starring Kurt Russell, filming underway at Paramount Ranch
A new movie starring Kurt Russell is currently filming in Malibu.
According to various sources, Bone Tomahawk is filming at the Paramount Ranch for the next two weeks.
Bone Tomahawk follow..Monday, Oct. 6 Filming Locations for Ted 2, The Good Wife, Gotham, The Blacklist, Sons of Anarchy, Supernatural, & many more!
Here’s a look at what’s filming on location for Monday, Oct. 6, 2014:
If you have any scoop about where a movie or TV show is filming, let us know about it at [email protected] or..
1945: 72 aircraft; 96 crews; 2,200 personnel
The 91st Bomb Group (Heavy) was an air combat unit of the United States Army Air Forces during the Second World War. Classified as a heavy bombardment group, the 91st operated B-17 Flying Fortress aircraft and was known unofficially as "The Ragged Irregulars" or as "Wray's Ragged Irregulars", after the commander who took the group to England.  During its service in World War II the unit consisted of the 322nd, 323rd, 324th, and 401st Bomb Squadrons. The 91st Bomb Group is most noted as the unit in which the bomber Memphis Belle flew, and for having suffered the greatest number of losses of any heavy bomb group in World War II.
The 91st Bomb Group conducted 340 bombing missions with the Eighth Air Force over Europe, operating out of RAF Bassingbourn. Inactivated at the end of the war, the group was brought back in 1947 as a reconnaissance group of the United States Air Force, and then had its lineage and honors bestowed on like-numbered wings of the Strategic Air Command, the Air Force Space Command and the Air Force Global Strike Command.
From 1 July 1947, until its drawdown in February 1952, the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Group provided worldwide surveillance, flying RB-29s, RB-45s and RB-47s as a subordinate component of the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, consisting of the 322nd, 323rd, and 324th Strategic Recon Squadrons, and the 91st Air Refueling Squadron (Medium). The group was inactivated on 28 May 1952, as part of an SAC-wide termination of groups as an organizational echelon, while the wing and all subordinate units remained active until 8 November 1957.
The group was activated in 1991 as the 91st Operations Group. Between 1991 and 1994, and since 1996, the 91st Operations Group, initially as part of the 91st Space Wing, and since renamed the 91st Missile Wing, maintains the alert force of Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missiles maintained at Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota. Its three missile squadrons, however, have no traditional link to the 91st Bomb Group and were previously part of the 455th Strategic Missile Wing and 455th Bomb Group.Organization of the 91st Bomb Group (H) [ edit ]
The 91st Bomb Group, (Heavy) was activated on 14 April 1942, by General Order 31 of the Third Air Force.Wartime command staff [ edit ]
¹Lt. Col. Sheeler, while Operations Officer, was also acting group commander from 15 November 1944, to 30 December 1944, in the absence of Col. Terry.Squadron commanders [ edit ]
Four heavy bomb squadrons were constituted 16 May 1942, and assigned to the group.
¹Major Myers, the Group's S-3, was also acting 401st BS commander because of casualties.Component support organizations [ edit ]
Established 28 January 1942, and activated on 14 April 1942 at Harding Army Air Base, Louisiana, the 91st Bomb Group consisted of a small administrative cadre without subordinate units until 13 May 1942, when it was moved to MacDill Field, Florida. There Lt. Col. Stanley T. Wray took command of the group, and the four flying squadrons assigned to the group were activated. The 91st received air crews and began phase one training with just three B-17's available. On 26 June 1942, the group (now consisting of 83 officers and 78 enlisted men) was transferred to the Second Air Force and moved to Walla Walla Army Air Base, Washington to complete phase two training, with two squadrons operating from satellite fields at Pendleton and Baker Army Air Base, Oregon.
The 91st received orders to deploy overseas and on 24 August 1942, the ground echelon entrained for Fort Dix, New Jersey, where it remained until 5 September, embarking on the RMS Queen Mary. Arriving at Greenock, Scotland, on 11 September, the ground echelon moved by train to RAF Kimbolton, a war expansion airfield in the English Midlands.
Part of the air echelon moved on 24 August 1942, to Gowen Field, Idaho, where it received six new B-17F aircraft. From there it flew by pairs, making frequent stops, to Dow Army Airfield, Maine. The remainder of the air crews relocated to Dow by train, arriving 1 September. Between 4 and 24 September the group flew training missions while it received 29 additional B-17's from air depots in Middletown, Pennsylvania; Cheyenne, Wyoming; Tulsa, Oklahoma; and Denver, Colorado, and conducted phase three training.
The 91st Bomb Group moved by squadrons to the United Kingdom, beginning with the 324th Bomb Squadron on 25 September, flying to Gander, Newfoundland. The 324th made a non-stop flight along the North Ferry Route on 30 September, landing at Prestwick, Scotland. The 322d Bomb Squadron moved to Gander on 30 September, and Prestwick on 1 October, followed by one day by the 401st Bomb Squadron. The group lost one of its 35 bombers during transit when a 401st B-17 crashed in fog into a hillside near Cushendall, Northern Ireland, killing 8 of the crew and a flight surgeon.
The 324th Bomb Squadron flew as a unit from Prestwick to Kimbolton on 1 October, followed by the 322nd on 2 October and the 401st on 6 October. On 10 October, the remaining squadron, the 323rd, flew to Gander from Dow. It did not reach Prestwick until 14 October, by which time the 91st had changed bases.
VIII Bomber Command had assigned the 91st to Kimbolton intending it to be its operational base. The installation was of war-time construction and had not yet been reconstructed to Class A airfield specifications. Intended as a light or medium bomber field, its runways were not suitable for the combat weights of B-17s fully loaded with bombs and fuel. Three practice missions in as many days indicated to the staff of the 91st that the runway would quickly deteriorate and Colonel Wray immediately consulted Col. Newton Longfellow, VIII BC commander, who suggested Wray inspect the RAF Bomber Command OTU base at RAF Bassingbourn, Cambridgeshire ( 52°06′N 00°03′W / 52.100°N 0.050°W / 52.100; -0.050 ), to see if it might be suitable.
Wray traveled to RAF Bassingbourn, located four miles (6 km) north of Royston. Not only was the base more appealing from its closer proximity to London, but it had been constructed in 1938 and was considerably more comfortable, with permanent brick buildings, including barracks for enlisted personnel (in contrast to the Nissen huts at Kimbolton), landscaped grounds with curbed roadways (Kimbolton, like many war-time fields, was noted for muddy conditions); and had already been re-constructed to a Class A airfield.
Wray contacted his staff and ordered them to prepare for immediate relocation. On 14 October, without prior approval, the 91st moved itself and all of its equipment to Bassingbourn in one day and took possession of the station.Combat operations and tactics [ edit ]
The combat history of the 91st Bomb Group can be ordered into three phases. The first, from 4 November 1942 to 1 May 1943, saw the 91st develop operational experience as one of the four "pioneer" B-17 groups, creating doctrine and tactics. The second, from 1 May 1943 to 1 January 1944, had the 91st in a leadership role of the Eighth Air Force at a time when the expanding Bomber Command struggled to establish air superiority without adequate fighter support. The final phase, from 1 January 1944 to 27 May 1945, was as one part of a massive, systematic campaign supported by a large force of escort fighters that brought to fruition the strategic bombing concept.First phase of operations [ edit ]
The 91st Bomb Group began combat operations on 4 November 1942, when it received a field order for a mission to bomb the submarine pens at Brest, France, later changed to an attack on the Luftwaffe airfield at Abbeville. Thirty minutes before takeoff the mission was cancelled ("scrubbed" in the parlance of that time) because of poor weather. These circumstances were typical of those encountered daily by all the heavy bomber groups in the autumn of 1942 as they pioneered the concept of strategic bombing by daylight.
On 4 November the Eighth Air Force consisted of just nine groups. Four (91st, 97th, 301st and 303d) had been earmarked for the Twelfth Air Force in support of Operation Torch and were in England to acquire combat experience and stage for forward movement to North Africa. Two (97th and 301st)had already been withdrawn from operations to prepare for imminent transfer to Algeria and another (92nd) to act as an operational training unit (OTU) for replacement combat crews. Of the six remaining units only the 93rd Bomb Group (a B-24 unit) and the 306th Bomb Group were operational, and the 306th had flown only two missions. As late as 15 December the impending transfer of the 91st BG to Algeria was postponed because of logistics difficulties and a shortage of airdromes in North Africa.
The group's first mission was to Brest, France, on 7 November. The target was the Kriegsmarine submarine base, and was the first of 28 missions against the U-boat force in the following eight months. In all, eight missions were flown in November 1942, seven of them against the sub pens. The last of these, on 23 November, resulted in the disastrous loss of two squadron commanders, the group navigator, the group bombardier, and three of the five airplanes attacking.
In December 1942 VIII Bomber Command issued two-letter squadron identification codes to be painted on the fuselages of the bombers:
The 91st was made a part of the 101st Provisional Bomb Wing on 3 January 1943. Its first mission to a target in Germany occurred 27 January, and it earned the first of two Distinguished Unit Citations on 4 March when it continued an attack against the marshalling yards at Hamm, Germany, after all the other groups had turned back because of poor weather conditions. On 17 April the group led the Eighth Air Force on its first mission against the German aircraft industry, attacking Bremen. German fighter reaction was intense and sustained, and the Eighth lost twice as many bombers as on any previous mission. The 91st had six B-17s shot down, all from the 401st Bomb Squadron.
During this phase the group received a substantial number of aircraft to replace those lost of written off. However replacements for lost crewmen were few and made by transfer of individuals. The influx of replacement crews from the Combat Crew Replacement Center at Bovingdon did not begin commence until March 1943 when the personnel requirements of Operation Torch were largely fulfilled. As the 91st developed combat experience, it experienced a decrease in aircraft commanders, apart from missing aircraft and wounds, from moving pilots into command and staff positions. Without an adequate pool of replacements, many co-pilots were upgraded to aircraft commanders.Second phase of operations [ edit ]
The second phase of combat operations, coinciding with the implementation of the Pointblank Directive to target German airpower, began in May 1943. The Eighth developed in the next three months into a force of sixteen B-17 groups and began attacking industrial targets deep inside Germany beginning at the end of July. Col. Wray left the 91st on 22 May to become commander of a new wing, the 103rd Provisional Combat Bomb Wing. He was replaced by the group deputy commander, Lt. Col. William Reid, formerly of the 92nd Bomb Group. Lt. Col. Baskin Lawrence, who had been the deputy commander of the 91st from its date of activation, had left the group 1 May to command the 92nd.
On 25 June 1943, a wholesale shifting of command officers between the two groups occurred. Col. Lawrence departed the 92nd to become commander of a new "Pathfinder" group drawn from a squadron of the 92nd, and was replaced by Col. Reid, who left the 91st to command his old group. The 91st received its third commander, Lt. Col. Clemens Wurzbach, who had been Lawrence's deputy commander.
During this transition period the 91st also had its first crews finish their required combat tours and return to the United States, including the crew of the Memphis Belle. Of the original roster of combat crews, 32% completed their tours, 15% were reassigned to other commands, and the rest became casualties. At the end of June it also acquired its most recognizable symbol, the "Triangle A" group tail marking often used in films about B-17s.
On 17 August 1943, the 91st Bomb Group led a mission to bomb the ball-bearing factories at Schweinfurt, Germany, losing 10 aircraft. This was the first of several missions between then and 14 October 1943, in which the Eighth Air Force, flying beyond the range of its fighter escorts, suffered severe losses of aircraft and crews. The 91st had 28 aircraft shot down during this period, the most of any group in the Eighth. The remainder of the second phase of operations saw a suspension of deep penetration missions until long-range escort fighters became available.
Until 22 September 1943, the 91st BG had been equipped entirely with B-17F aircraft that had not been modified for longer-range Tokyo tanks. On that date it received is first B-17G, which would become the standard bomber of the Eighth Air Force in 1944–1945. It continued to receive B-17F replacement aircraft, along with the B-17G's, until 24 December 1943.
Col. Wurzbach completed his tour of duty on 12 December 1943, and was replaced by Col. Claude E. Putnam, a former commander of the 324th Bomb Squadron, who returned to his old group from duty as the commander of the 306th Bomb Group, where he had been pilot of the lead aircraft on the first mission to Germany nearly a year before. Wurzbach had commanded the group for 44 missions; Putnam would command it for 63.Final phase of operations [ edit ]
The 91st Bomb Group won its second DUC as part of the six-group task force attacking the Focke Wulf assembly factory at Oschersleben, Germany, on 11 January 1944. This attack marked the renewal of the heavy bomber offensive against targets in all areas of the German Reich. Although losses were heavy (34 from the Oschersleben task force and 60 overall), three targets were struck by over 600 bombers and a group of P-51 Mustangs was part of the escort force.
From 20 to 25 February 1944, known as "Big Week", the United States Strategic Air Forces conducted Operation Argument, a campaign against the German aircraft industry with the goal of achieving air superiority over Europe by drawing the German fighter force into combat. 800 to 1000 bombers, escorted by 700 to 900 fighters, struck multiple targets daily from both England and Italy. The 91st flew all five days, losing ten aircraft, and on 24 February attacked Schweinfurt for the third time.
The first attack by the 91st on Berlin came on 6 March, when it led the entire Eighth Air Force at a loss of 69 bombers (6 of them from the 91st), followed by half a dozen more to the German capital in the next two months. On 12 May the Eighth Air Force began a costly campaign against oil and synthetic oil production facilities that continued to the end of the war. On 17 May, Col. Putnam completed his tour as commanding officer of the 91st Bomb Group and Col. Henry W. Terry took command, which he would retain for 185 missions to the end of hostilities in Europe. Aided by the use of radar-equipped Pathfinder force bombers, the 91st BG averaged a mission every other day for the remainder of the war.
In addition to bombing strategic targets, often at great loss in aircraft and crews, the 91st also made tactical strikes in support of the Allied landings in France, in the battles for Caen and Saint-Lô, during the German winter counteroffensive, and during the Allied offensive across the Rhine River.
Beginning 16 March 1944, the 91st began receiving replacement B-17's that were by a change in USAAF policy no longer painted olive drab, and the bomber force became almost completely "natural metal finish" by July 1944. The 1st Combat Bomb Wing, of which the 91st was a part, adopted the use of a red empennage and wingtips in June 1944 to more easily identify its groups during assembly for missions. The 91st retained its "Triangle A" tail marking as well.
The intensity of operations during this phase is reflected by the 100 B-17's lost by the 91st Bomb Group during 1944, compared to 84 in 1943, despite the diminution of the Luftwaffe during the spring and summer. Radar-directed flak became very proficient in defending critical targets and the fighter force hoarded its pilots and fuel for occasional mass interceptions of the bombers.
The 91st BG experienced its worst loss of the war during this period on 2 November 1944, when it attacked the I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. synthetic oil plant at Leuna, southeast of Merseburg, Germany. Suffering several losses to intense flak, for which this target was notorious, the 91st found itself isolated from the bomber stream at the division rally point, where it was attacked by large numbers of Fw 190A-R8 sturm fighters of IV./JG 3. In all, thirteen B-17s of the 91st were shot down out of 37 dispatched and half of the remainder suffered major battle damage. 49 of the 117 crewmen aboard the Fortresses were killed and the remainder captured.  
The 91st Bomb Group experienced its final aircraft loss on 17 April 1945, and flew its last mission, to Pilsen, Czechoslovakia, on 25 April. The 91st had been alerted for 500 combat missions, of which 160 were scrubbed or recalled and 340 completed. Immediately after VE Day, it flew three days of operations to rescue Allied POWs incarcerated at Stalag Luft I in Barth, Germany, as part of Operation Revival, bringing out 2,032 prisoners.Casualties [ edit ]
The 91st Bomb Group had at least 392 B-17's assigned to it at some point of the war. Of these, 40 were transferred to other commands, 37 were retired as unsuitable for further operations, and 71 were on hand at the end of hostilities. The rest were lost: 197 in combat, 37 written off, and 10 in training crashes. Of the combat losses, the 401st and 323rd Squadrons each lost 55, the 322nd Squadron lost 49, and the 324th Squadron 38.
Approximately 5,200 crewmen flew combat missions for the 91st from 1942 to 1945. 19% were killed or missing (887 KIA and 123 MIA) and 18% (959) became prisoners of war. 33 others were killed in flying accidents. Of the 35 original crews to arrive at Bassingbourn, 17 were lost in combat (47%). Daily records indicate that for the first six months of operations, 22 of 46 listed crews were lost (48%).
The fatalities in the 91st Bomb Group, equivalent to an infantry regiment in numbers of combat personnel, exceeded the killed-in-action of more than half (47) of the Army's ground force divisions, and equalled or exceeded the rate of killed-in-action in the infantry regiments of 35 others. Only seven divisions (all infantry) had killed-in-action rates higher than the 91st BG. 
Aircraft losses from Havelaar, total from USAAF via Freeman. Personnel losses from both. Crew losses from 91st BG daily logs.Honors and campaigns [ edit ]
The air echelon left Bassingbourn on 27 May 1945, and moved to Drew AAB, Tampa, Florida. The ground echelon sailed on the RMS Queen Elizabeth to New York on 24 June. The group reunited on 2 July, to prepare for transfer to the Pacific Theater, but many members had been transferred to other units and no further training was conducted before the war ended. The group was inactivated on 7 November 1945.
Following the war the group was redesignated the 91st Reconnaissance Group, assigned to the Strategic Air Command, and activated on 1 July 1947 at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. After the United States Air Force became a separate service, the 91st was redesignated the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Group on 10 November 1948, and made a part of the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Wing. It operated a variety of aircraft, including B-17's, RB-17's, B-29's and RB-29's, and B-50's. On 6 July 1950, it was redesignated the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Group (Medium) and equipped with the jet RB-45C. The group was removed from operations on 10 February 1952, when its squadrons were assigned directly to the wing, and inactivated on 28 May 1952.
The organization was redesignated as the 91st Operations Group on 29 August 1991, and activated at Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota. on 1 September 1991. Inactivated on 1 July 1994, it was again activated on 1 February 1996. The 91st OG is responsible for the operations of three missile squadrons maintaining a nuclear alert force of 150 LGM-30G Minuteman III ICBMs and 15 alert facilities spread across 8,500 square miles (22,000 km 2 ) of territory. The squadrons of the 91st OG are:USAF group commanders [ edit ] Significant members of the 91st Bomb Group [ edit ]
1. Shoo Shoo Baby (aircraft) – Shoo Shoo Shoo Baby, originally Shoo Shoo Baby, is a Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress in World War II, preserved and on public display. A B-17G-35-BO, serial number 42-32076, and manufactured by Boeing, it was named by her crew for a song of the name made popular by The Andrews Sisters. Photographs of the bomber indicate that a third Shoo was added to the name at some point in May 1944 when the aircraft commander completed his tour of duty and was replaced by another pilot. The nose art on the airframe was one of some 130 pieces painted by line mechanic Tony Starcer for The Ragged Irregulars, this one based on Alberto Vargas Hawaii Esquire pin up art. The aircraft that would become Shoo Shoo Baby was accepted into the U. S. Army Air Forces inventory on 19 January 1944, after depot modifications, it was flown to the 91st Bomb Group at RAF Bassingbourn on 23 March and began flying missions the next day. McDuffee was the first pilot assigned to the aircraft and flew 14 of his 25 missions in it, but nine different crews flew Shoo Shoo Baby on missions. The B-17 flew 24 combat missions from England with the 91st BG, on its final mission, to the Focke Wulf aircraft component factory at Poznań, Poland, it crash-landed at Malmö Airport, Sweden. Bob could not get the prop feathered and it continued to windmill the entire trip with no vibration. We attempted to stay in formation with three engines but found this impossible and had to drop out and we continued on course to the best of my ability. We were losing altitude but continued to the target and dropped our bombs, Flying alone toward the Baltic Sea, we saw many German fighters attacking formations of B-17s and could not understand why they didn’t pick us out as a straggler. Before we reached the Baltic Sea, we lost the engine. Bob asked for a course to Sweden, and I charted one to a town called Ystad in the very southernmost part of Sweden. All loose equipment, including guns, radio equipment. An attempt was made to drop the ball turret, but it wouldn’t move, as we approached the coastline, Bob was interested in knowing whether or not it was Sweden. I confidently stated that it was, but after the flak started coming up as we got over land, I wasn’t so sure. All of it was low, and I believe the Swedes were just telling us ‘Don’t try anything. ’ Just before we reached land we lost the third engine, and we were losing altitude fast. A Swedish fighter came up and led us to Malmö, Sweden, actually, we had to swing wide to keep from colliding. Sweden, a country, interned the crew and aircraft
2. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
3. United States Army Air Forces – Each of these forces had a commanding general who reported directly to the Army Chief of Staff. S. Army to control its own installations and support personnel, the peak size of the AAF during the Second World War was over 2.4 million men and women in service and nearly 80,000 aircraft by 1944, and 783 domestic bases in December 1943. By V-E Day, the Army Air Forces had 1.25 million men stationed overseas, in its expansion and conduct of the war, the AAF became more than just an arm of the greater organization. By the end of World War II, the Army Air Forces had become virtually an independent service and this contrast between theory and fact is. fundamental to an understanding of the AAF. Gen. Billy Mitchell that led to his later court-martial, a strategy stressing precision bombing of industrial targets by heavily armed, long-range bombers emerged, formulated by the men who would become its leaders. Since 1920, control of units had resided with commanders of the corps areas. Both were created in 1933 when a conflict with Cuba seemed possible following a coup détat. Activation of GHQ Air Force represented a compromise between strategic airpower advocates and ground force commanders who demanded that the Air Corps mission remain tied to that of the land forces. GHQ Air Force organized combat groups administratively into a force of three wings deployed to the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts but was small in comparison to European air forces. Corps area commanders continued to control over airfields and administration of personnel. The expected activation of Army General Headquarters prompted Army Chief of Staff George C. Marshall to request a study from Chief of the Air Corps Maj. Gen. Henry H. Arnold resulting on 5 October 1940 in a proposal for creation of an air staff, unification of the air arm under one commander, and equality with the ground and supply forces. Marshall implemented a compromise that the Air Corps found entirely inadequate, naming Arnold as acting Deputy Chief of Staff for Air but rejecting all organizational points of his proposal. GHQ Air Force instead was assigned to the control of Army General Headquarters, although the latter was a training and not an operational component, when it was activated in November 1940. A division of the GHQ Air Force into four air defense districts on 19 October 1940 was concurrent with the creation of air forces to defend Hawaii. The air districts were converted in March 1941 into numbered air forces with an organization of 54 groups. Marshall had come to the view that the air forces needed a simpler system, Arnold and Marshall agreed that the AAF would enjoy a general autonomy within the War Department until the end of the war, while its commanders would cease lobbying for independence. Marshall, a proponent of airpower, left understood that the Air Force would likely achieve its independence following the war
4. Eighth Air Force – The Eighth Air Force is a numbered air force of the United States Air Force Global Strike Command. It is headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana, the command serves as Air Forces Strategic – Global Strike, one of the air components of United States Strategic Command. The Eighth Air Force includes the heart of Americas heavy bomber force, the B-2 Spirit stealth bomber, the B-1 Lancer supersonic bomber, and it was the largest of the deployed combat Army Air Forces in numbers of personnel, aircraft, and equipment. Elements of 8 AF engaged in operations during the Korean War, Vietnam War. Eighth Air Force is one of two active duty numbered air forces in Air Force Global Strike Command, Eighth Air Force, with headquarters at Barksdale AFB, in the Bossier City – Shreveport, Louisiana, metro area, supports U. S. Joint Forces Command, and is designated as U. S. Strategic Commands Task Force 204, providing on-alert, the mission of The Mighty Eighth is to safeguard Americas interests through strategic deterrence and global combat power. Eighth Air Force controls long-range nuclear-capable bomber assets throughout the United States and its flexible, conventional and nuclear deterrence mission provides the capability to deploy forces and engage enemy threats from home station or forward positioned, anywhere, any time. The 8th Air Force motto is Peace Through Strength and this air power includes the heart of Americas heavy bomber force, the B-2 Spirit and the B-52 Stratofortress. The B-2 force consists of 20 bombers assigned to the 509th Bomb Wing at Whiteman AFB, for additional history and lineage, see United States Air Forces in Europe The history of Eighth Air Force begins on 2 January 1942 with its activation at Savannah Air Base, Georgia. In quick order, on 5 January, Major General Carl Spaatz assumed command of HQ Eighth Air Force at Bolling Field, Washington, on 8 January the order activating the U. S. Air Forces in the British Isles was announced. On 12 May, the first contingent of USAAF personnel arrived in England to join the Eighth Air Force, on 15 June, Spaatz arrived in England to establish the Headquarters of Eighth Air Force at Bushy Park,15 miles WSW of London. Eighth Air Force was the command and control organization over its operational components, VIII Bomber Command Strategic bombardment using heavy, VIII Fighter Command Provide fighter escort of heavy bombers VIII Air Support Command Provide reconnaissance, troop transport, and tactical bombardment using twin-engine medium bombers. VIII Air Service Command Service and logistical support, VIII Bomber Command was activated at Langley Field, Virginia, It was reassigned to Savannah Air Base, Georgia on 10 February 1942. The first combat group of VIII Bomber Command to arrive in the United Kingdom was the ground echelon of the 97th Bombardment Group, during World War II, the offensive air forces of the United States Army Air Forces came to be classified as strategic or tactical. In Europe, Eighth Air Force was the first USAAF strategic air force, Eighth Air Force carried out strategic daytime strategic bombing operations in Western Europe from airfields in eastern England. On 4 January 1944, the B-24s and B-17s based in England flew their last mission as a part of VIII Bomber Command. On 22 February 1944, a reorganization of American airpower took place in Europe. VIII Bomber Command was redesignated as Eighth Air Force, with VIII Fighter and this is from where the present-day Eighth Air Forces history, lineage and honors derive
5. RAF Bassingbourn – During the Second World War it served first as an RAF station and then as a bomber airfield of the Eighth Air Force, of the United States Army Air Forces. It remains the home of the Tower Museum Bassingbourn, RAF Bassingbourn was constructed by John Laing & Son between 1937 and 1939 in the parishes of Wendy and Bassingbourn immediately to the west of the A14 road. The site selected was low ground between several tributaries of the River Cam, the project was begun in April 1937 under the direction of Sir Maurice Laing, with Reginald Silk as the site engineer and John Crowther the site surveyor. Four C Type hangars were erected by a sub-contractor in a semi-circle at the edge of the airfield site approximately one mile north of the hamlet of Kneesworth. Roadway cores were built of unusual thickness to prevent crumbling of the pavement, the technical site was built with permanent, kerbed streets and landscaped. Originally treeless, Bassingbourn was made one of the most attractive RAF stations by the planting of hundreds of trees as part of the project. The Class A airfield standard was promulgated by the Air Ministry in August 1942, the main runway was lengthened to 1,825 m by extending it west, with the use of extensive tile drainage, across a moat off the Mill River. The north–south runway was extended 400 m south, and the runway lengthened 305 m to the northwest. Additional perimeter track was added around the store site, which was doubled in area. Ultimately seven miles of taxiway were paved, four dispersal areas were also built. Dispersal A was placed in a field between the technical site and the hamlet of Bassingbourn-North End. Dispersal B was located north and west of the bomb store, Dispersal C was next to the A14 north of the runways and Dispersal D was built in the grand avenue of Wimpole Park, the tree-lined entrance to Wimpole Hall across the A14 from the station. Bombers using this dispersal had to cross the road to marshal for take-off, ultimately 35 pan hardstands and 16 loop hardstands were constructed, able to accommodate 67 bombers. Bassingbourn made extensive use of camouflage to disguise the location of its runways, prior to the building of the concrete runways, the strips were painted to blend them into the surrounding pattern of fields, lanes and drainage areas. After conversion to Class A standards, which required extensive clearing and grading of the airfield area, RAF personnel first arrived at Bassingbourn from RAF Uxbridge in March 1938, followed by No.108 Squadron from RAF Cranfield in April. The first Station Commander was Wing Commander F. Wright, a man from Royston. No 108 Squadron operated Hinds until the end of June 1938, Bassingbourn retained its OTU role following the outbreak of the Second World War, although No.108 Squadron was transferred to RAF Bicester and replaced by 215 Squadron. On 8 April 1940, No.11 Operational Training Unit was formed at Bassingbourn as part of No.6 Group from the Station HQ, equipped with Vickers Wellingtons, its role was to train night bomber crews
6. Distinguished Unit Citation – The unit with the most Presidential Unit Citations is the USS Parche with 9 citations. The Army citation was established by Executive Order 9075 on 26 February 1942, superseded by Executive Order 9396 on Dec.2,1943, as with other Army unit citations, the PUC is in a larger frame than other ribbons, and is worn above the right pocket. All members of the unit may wear the decoration, whether or not they participated in the acts for which the unit was cited. Only those assigned to the unit at the time of the action cited may wear the decoration as a permanent award, for both the Army and Air Force, the emblem is a solid blue ribbon enclosed in a gold frame. The Air Force PUC was adopted from the Army Distinguished Unit Citation after the Air Force became a military branch in 1947. By Executive Order 10694, dated Jan,10,1957 the Air Force redesignated the Distinguished Unit Citation as the Presidential Unit Citation. The Air Force PUC is the color and design as the Army PUC but slightly smaller. The Citation is carried on the units colors in the form of a blue streamer,4 ft long and 2.75 in wide. For the Army, only on rare occasions will a larger than battalion qualify for award of this decoration. The Navy citation was established by Executive Order 9050 on 6 February 1942, the Navy version has blue, yellow, and red horizontal stripes, and is the only Navy ribbon having horizontal stripes. These are only worn by persons who meet the criteria at the time it is awarded to the unit, unlike the Army, those who later join the unit do not wear it on a temporary basis. The current decoration is known as the Department of Homeland Security Presidential Unit Citation. A Coast Guard version of the award was awarded to all U. S. Coast Guard and Coast Guard Auxiliary personnel responding to Hurricane Katrina by President George W. Bush for rescue, the United States Public Health Service Presidential Citation was established in 2015. The design was finalized by the Army Institute of Heraldry on 17 August 2015, two units of the Free French Forces were awarded Presidential Unit Citations during World War II. On April 22,1986, the 1st Fighter Group Força Aérea Brasileira was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for its actions in the Po Valley region of Italy in World War II. The Brazilians, operating in Italy in support of Allied forces, destroyed in one day over 45 vehicles, strafed pontoon bridges on the River Po, eleven missions of 44 sorties were flown destroying nine motor transports and damaging 17. One Belgian-Luxembourgian battalion of the Belgian United Nations Command was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation once for actions during the Battle of the Imjin River, the Colombia Battalion received the citation while attached to the American 21st Infantry Regiment in 1951. One Dutch unit, the Netherlands Detachment United Nations, part of the Regiment Van Heutsz, was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation twice for actions during the Korean War, the first citation was awarded after the battle near Wonju and Hoengson in February 1951
7. Hamm – Hamm is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the part of the Ruhr area. As of December 2003 its population was 180,849, the city is situated between the A1 motorway and A2 motorway. Hamm railway station is an important hub for transport and renowned for its distinctive station building. The coat of arms has been in use in its present form for about 750 years and it shows the markish chessboard in red and silver on a golden field. Originally it was the coat of arms, i. e. the Counts of Mark. The chessboard and the colours are displayed in the coats of arms of further towns founded by that family line. Similarly, the colours of the city are red and white, the name Ham means corner in the old Low German dialect spoken at that time. In the old times the name thom Hamme would be used,1350 The Black death killed nearly all of the citizens. 1469 Hamm became a member of the Hanseatic League and it was one of the most powerful towns in the region, while the large cities of the todays Ruhr area still were only tiny villages. Almost all buildings were destroyed, except for the main church St. Georg,1657 Establishment of the Gynasium illustre with three faculties. 1820 The regional appeal court moves from Cleve to Hamm,1944 Coal-mine Maximillian closes after several problems with water drainage of the hole mine. 1945 First meeting of the city council after the war 1946 Establishment of the industrial court,1956 Sport airfield founded in the Lippe meadows. 1976 Coal-mine Sachsen closes 1984 First Landesgartenschau of North Rhine-Westphalia is held in Hamm, the old area of the coal-mine Maximillian was used for this purpose. The world greatest Glasselefant is built as main attraction and until today is one of the landmarks of the city. The Oberbürgermeister is elected directly for a five years term, together with the city council, in 1939,1968 and 1975 Hamm incorporated several towns and municipalities, in 1939 the village Mark and in 1968 the villages of Berge and Westtünnen. The number of more than doubles from 83.000 in 1974 to 173.000 in 1975. The following table shows the situation in 2006, every quarter is named with the prefix Hamm, like Hamm-Bockum-Hövel or Hamm-Mitte
8. Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission – The Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission was an air combat battle in World War II. A strategic bombing attack flown by B-17 Flying Fortresses of the U. S. Army Air Forces on August 17,1943, after being postponed several times by unfavorable weather, the operation, known within the Eighth Air Force as Mission No. 84, was flown on the anniversary of the first daylight raid by the Eighth Air Force, Mission No.84 was a strike by 376 bombers of sixteen bomb groups against German heavy industry well beyond the range of escorting fighters. The mission inflicted heavy damage on the Regensburg target, but at catastrophic loss to the force, with 60 bombers lost, as a result, the Eighth Air Force was unable to follow up immediately with a second attack that might have seriously crippled German industry. When Schweinfurt was finally attacked again two months later, the lack of fighter escort had still not been addressed and losses were even higher. As a consequence, deep penetration strategic bombing was curtailed for five months, because of diversions of groups to the invasion of North Africa, the bomber force in England had been limited in size to four groups of B-17s and two of B-24s until May 1943. The 1st Bombardment Wing, which included all of the original B-17 groups, was based in the English Midlands while the 4th Bombardment Wing stations were located in East Anglia, the production of Bf 109s was located in Regensburg and in Wiener Neustadt, Austria. To successfully complete its portion of the attack, the Eighth Air Force decided to attack a target in central Germany as well as Regensburg to divide and confuse German air defenses. The 4th Bombardment Wing, using B-17s equipped with Tokyo tanks for longer range, would attack the Messerschmitt Bf 109 plants in Regensburg and then fly on to bases in Bône, Berteaux and Telergma. The 1st Bombardment Wing, following it, would turn northeast and bomb the ball-bearing factories of Schweinfurt, two supporting attacks were also made a part of the overall mission plan. Eighth Air Force bomber operations were calculated with one to two hours of climb and assembly into formations factored into mission lengths, Mission 84 planning indicated a takeoff window from dawn to approximately 08,00 without cancelling the mission. At dawn of August 17, after airmen had gone to their airplanes, the mission takeoff was delayed until 08,00, when the fog had cleared sufficiently over East Anglia to allow the 4th Bombardment Wing to take off using instruments, a technique they had practiced. Consequently the launch of the Schweinfurt force was delayed to allow U. S. escort fighters sufficient time to return to base to rearm for a second escort mission. In all the 1st Wing was delayed more than three hours behind the 4th Wing, the Regensburg task force was led by the 4th Bombardment Wing commander, Colonel Curtis E. LeMay. It consisted of seven B-17 Groups totalling 146 aircraft, each group, several factors weighed against the Regensburg force in this air battle. The arrangement of two instead of three in the two following provisional wings meant a third fewer guns available to each for their mutual defense. The overall length of the force was too great for effective fighter support. The last wing formation of bombers was fifteen miles behind the first and nearly out of visual range
9. Oschersleben – Oschersleben is a town in the Börde district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The population in 1905 was 13,271, in 2005 about 18,000, Oschersleben is located near the river Bode,24 miles southwest of Magdeburg in a region called Magdeburger Börde. The river Bode reaches its northernmost point outside the town, Oschersleben is the most important railway station of the Magdeburg–Halberstadt–Thale line. On November 23,994 Oschersleben was first mentioned in a document by the Emperor Otto III, in 1235 it was first referred to as a town. In the 17th century most parts of Oschersleben were destroyed by fires, in 1648 it came under Brandenburgs domination. Oschersleben became a capital in 1816 and was connected to the railway system in 1843. In the years previous to World War II Oschersleben expanded due to the factory that was founded there. This armament factory was also the reason why the Allied forces attacked the town ten times, during the period of the German Democratic Republic Oschersleben was a center of agriculture in the region. Besides some industrial establishments settled there, for example the still existing manufacturer of pumps as well as refineries, iron foundries, breweries, machine shops. Since 2000, the Motopark Oschersleben race track is used in the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters, World Touring Car Championship, in 2005, the circuit was renamed Motorsport Arena Oschersleben because of an insolvency of the investors. In 1992, a processing plant of the company Agrarfrost was built. The plant processes about 140,000 tons of potatoes a year, the town lies in the temperate zone and in the rain shadow of the Harz. In this area the annual rainfall average is 489 millimeters. Most precipitation here falls in June, averaging around 58 millimeters, the lowest monthly rainfall in February with 28 mm. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh
10. B-17 Flying Fortress – The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engine heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps. Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to build 200 bombers, although Boeing lost the contract because the prototype crashed, the air corps ordered 13 more B-17s for further evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through numerous design advances, the B-17 was primarily employed by the United States Army Air Forces in the daylight strategic bombing campaign of World War II against German industrial and military targets. The B-17 also participated to an extent in the War in the Pacific, early in World War II. From its prewar inception, the USAAC promoted the aircraft as a weapon, it was a relatively fast, high-flying. It developed a reputation for toughness based upon stories and photos of badly damaged B-17s safely returning to base, the B-17 developed a reputation as an effective bomber, dropping more bombs than any other U. S. aircraft in World War II. Of the 1.5 million tonnes of bombs dropped on Germany, in addition to its role as a bomber, the B-17 was also employed as a transport, antisubmarine aircraft, drone controller, and search-and-rescue aircraft. As of May 2015, ten aircraft remain airworthy, none of them are combat veterans. Dozens more are in storage or on static display, the oldest of these is a D-series veteran of combat in the Pacific and the Caribbean. On 8 August 1934, the U. S. Army Air Corps tendered a proposal for a bomber to replace the Martin B-10. The air corps was looking for a capable of reinforcing the air forces in Hawaii, Panama. Requirements were that it would carry a useful bombload at an altitude of 10,000 ft for ten hours with a top speed of at least 200 mph. They also desired, but did not require, a range of 2,000 mi, the competition for the air corps contract would be decided by a fly-off between Boeings design, the Douglas DB-1, and the Martin Model 146 at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio. The prototype B-17, with the Boeing factory designation of Model 299, was designed by a team of engineers led by E. Gifford Emery and Edward Curtis Wells and it combined features of the experimental Boeing XB-15 bomber with the Boeing 247 transport aircraft. The B-17s armament consisted of up to 4,800 lb of bombs on two racks in the bay behind the cockpit, and initially possessed five.30 caliber machine guns. It was powered by four Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet radial engines each producing 750 hp at 7,000 ft, the first flight of the Model 299 was on 28 July 1935 with Boeing chief test-pilot Leslie Tower at the controls. Richard Williams, a reporter for the Seattle Times, coined the name Flying Fortress with his comment, Why, when the Model 299 was rolled out bristling with multiple machine gun installations. The most unusual gun emplacement was the installation which allowed the single machine gun to be fired toward almost any frontal angle
11. Memphis Belle (B-17) – The aircraft was one of the first United States Army Air Forces B-17 heavy bombers to complete 25 combat missions with her crew intact. The aircraft and crew returned to the United States to sell war bonds. As of 2017, the aircraft was being restored at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio with plans to put it on display May 17,2018. The crew for the Memphis Belle are as follows, Pilot, Captain Robert K. Morgan Co-pilot, Captain James A. Verinis Navigator, Captain Charles B. 41-24485, was added to the USAAF inventory on 15 July 1942, each side of the fuselage bore the unit and aircraft identification markings of a B-17 of the 324th Bomb Squadron, the squadron code DF and individual aircraft letter A. Captain Robert K. Morgans crew flew 29 combat missions with the 324th Bomb Squadron, all, Morgans original co-pilot was Capt. James A. Verinis, who himself piloted the Memphis Belle for one mission. Verinis was promoted to commander of another B-17 for his final 16 missions. He rejoined Morgans crew as co-pilot for the back to the United States. The B-17 Hells Angels of the 303rd Bomb Group completed 25 combat missions on 13 May 1943, becoming the first B-17 to complete the feat, the aircraft was named after pilot Robert K Morgans sweetheart, Margaret Polk, a resident of Memphis, Tennessee. Morgan then contacted George Petty at the offices of Esquire magazine and asked him for a drawing to go with the name. The 91sts group artist, Corporal Tony Starcer, copied the Petty girl as art on both sides of the fuselage, depicting her suit in blue on the aircrafts port side. The nose art later included 25 bomb shapes, one for each mission credit, Station and crew names were stenciled below station windows on the aircraft after her tour of duty was completed. In his memoirs, Morgan claimed that during his publicity tour he flew the B-17 between the Buncombe County Courthouse and the City Hall of Asheville, North Carolina, his home town. Morgan wrote that leaving a local airport he decided to buzz the town, telling his copilot, Captain Verinis, I think well just drive up over the city. Morgan turned the bomber down Patton Avenue, a main thoroughfare, when he observed the courthouse and the city hall dead ahead, he lowered his left wing in a 60 degree bank and flew between the structures. She was flown to Memphis in July 1946 and stored until the summer of 1949 when she was placed on display at the National Guard armory near the citys fairgrounds and she sat out-of-doors into the 1980s, slowly deteriorating from weather and vandalism. Souvenir hunters removed almost all of the interior components, in the early 1970s, another mayor had donated the historic aircraft back to the Air Force, but they allowed her to remain in Memphis contingent on her being maintained. Efforts by the locally organized Memphis Belle Memorial Association, Inc. saw the aircraft moved to Mud Island in the Mississippi River in 1987 for display in a new pavilion with large tarp cover and she was still open to the elements, however, and prone to weathering
12. United States Air Force – The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a branch of the military on 18 September 1947 under the National Security Act of 1947. It is the most recent branch of the U. S. military to be formed, the U. S. Air Force is a military service organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The Air Force is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for surface forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field. As of 2015, the service more than 5,137 military aircraft,406 ICBMs and 63 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget with 313,242 active duty personnel,141,197 civilian employees,69,200 Air Force Reserve personnel, and 105,500 Air National Guard personnel. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF and it shall be organized, trained, and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The stated mission of the USAF today is to fly, fight, and win in air, space and we will provide compelling air, space, and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance, Reach and it should be emphasized that the core functions, by themselves, are not doctrinal constructs. The purpose of Nuclear Deterrence Operations is to operate, maintain, in the event deterrence fails, the US should be able to appropriately respond with nuclear options. Dissuading others from acquiring or proliferating WMD, and the means to deliver them, moreover, different deterrence strategies are required to deter various adversaries, whether they are a nation state, or non-state/transnational actor. Nuclear strike is the ability of forces to rapidly and accurately strike targets which the enemy holds dear in a devastating manner. Should deterrence fail, the President may authorize a precise, tailored response to terminate the conflict at the lowest possible level, post-conflict, regeneration of a credible nuclear deterrent capability will deter further aggression. Finally, the Air Force regularly exercises and evaluates all aspects of operations to ensure high levels of performance. Nuclear surety ensures the safety, security and effectiveness of nuclear operations, the Air Force, in conjunction with other entities within the Departments of Defense or Energy, achieves a high standard of protection through a stringent nuclear surety program. The Air Force continues to pursue safe, secure and effective nuclear weapons consistent with operational requirements, adversaries, allies, and the American people must be highly confident of the Air Forces ability to secure nuclear weapons from accidents, theft, loss, and accidental or unauthorized use. This day-to-day commitment to precise and reliable nuclear operations is the cornerstone of the credibility of the NDO mission, positive nuclear command, control, communications, effective nuclear weapons security, and robust combat support are essential to the overall NDO function. OCA is the method of countering air and missile threats, since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source
13. Strategic Air Command – At a lower echelon, headquarters divisions included Aircraft Engineering, Missile Concept, and Strategic Communications. In 1992, as part of an overall post-Cold War reorganization of the U. S. Planning to reorganize for a separate and independent postwar U. S. Air Force had begun by the fall of 1945, with the Simpson Board tasked to plan. the reorganization of the Army, SAC initially totaled 37,000 USAAF personnel. S. Air Force as an independent service, kenney, initial units reporting to the Strategic Air Command headquarters on 21 March 1946 included the Second Air Force, the IX Troop Carrier Command and the 73d Air Division. In addition to the bombing mission, SAC also devoted significant resources to aerial reconnaissance. An F-13 squadron, the F-13 later re-designated as the RB-29 Superfortress, was also established, SAC conducted routine aerial reconnaissance missions near the Soviet borders or near the 12-mile international waters limit, although some missions actually penetrated into Soviet airspace. The flight profiles of these missions—above 30,000 feet and in excess of 300 knots—made interception by Soviet air forces difficult until the Soviets 1948 introduction of the MiG-15 jet fighter. Project Nanook, the Cold War’s first Top Secret reconnaissance effort, used the first RB-29 missions for mapping and visual reconnaissance in the Arctic, later missions were Project LEOPARD along the Chukchi Peninsula, followed by Projects RICKRACK, STONEWORK, and COVERALLS. In 1946, the US possessed only nine atomic bombs and twenty-seven B-29s capable at any one time of delivering them, unfortunately, postwar budget and personnel cuts had had an insidious effect on SAC as its Deputy Commander, Major General Clements McMullen, implemented mandated force reductions. This continued to wear down SAC as a command and morale plummeted, as a result, by the end of 1947, only two of SACs eleven groups were combat ready. In terms of overall Air Force basing and infrastructure, SAC continued to acquire a share of USAF infrastructure. In 1947, before the USAF was established as an independent service, construction commenced on Limestone AAF, Maine, fort Dix AAF, New Jersey, Spokane AAF, Washington, and Wendover Field, Utah were also transferred to SAC between 30 April and 1 September 1947. Following establishment of the USAF as a service, SAC bases in the United States consisted of
14. Air Force Space Command – Air Force Space Command is a major command of the United States Air Force, with its headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. AFSPC supports U. S. military operations worldwide through the use of different types of satellite, launch. Operationally, AFSPC is an Air Force component command subordinate to U. S. Strategic Command, composition consist of approximately 22,000 military personnel and 9,000 civilian employees, although their missions overlap. AFSPC gained the cyber operations mission with the stand-up of 24th Air Force under AFSPC in August 2009, according to AFSPC, its mission is to Provide resilient and affordable Space and Cyberspace capabilities for the Joint Force and the Nation. As a result, AFSPCs activities make the space domain reliable to United States warfighters by assuring their access to space, in 1991, Operation Desert Storm provided emphasis for AFPSCs new focus on support to the warfighter. ICBM forces previously assigned to the inactivated Strategic Air Command were merged into AFSPC in 1993 until moved into Air Force Global Strike Command in 2009, the Space Command was the subject of a 60 Minutes News segment on CBS in April 2015. When speaking with 60 Minutes reporter David Martin, commanding General John E. Reporter David Martin also asked about the new Boeing X-37 space plane the US Air Force had been testing. This CBS interview was a peek into the secretive Space Command that protects the billion-dollar US satellites that provide essential global navigation, in 2016 Space Command began their Space Mission Force concept of operations to respond quickly to attacks in space. Each Space Wing undergoes special training then serves a four to six month rotation, Air Force Space Command has two active Numbered Air Forces. The Fourteenth Air Force provides space warfighting forces to U. S. Strategic Command in its capacity as Air Forces Strategic-Space and it is headquartered at Lackland AFB, Texas. AFSPC is the major command providing space forces and trained cyber warfare forces for U. S. Strategic Command, the Space and Missile Systems Center at Los Angeles AFB, California, designs and acquires all Air Force and most Department of Defense space systems. It oversees launches, completes on-orbit checkouts, then turns systems over to user agencies and it supports the Program Executive Office for Space on the NAVSTAR Global Positioning, Defense Satellite Communications and MILSTAR systems. SMC also supports the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program and the Follow-on Early Warning System, in addition, it supports development and acquisition of land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles for the Air Force Program Executive Office for Strategic Systems. This includes obtaining spectrum access critical for all Air Force core functions, the AFSPC headquarters is a major unit located at Peterson AFB, Colorado. Through the command and control of all DOD satellites, satellite operators provide force-multiplying effects—continuous global coverage, low vulnerability, satellites provide essential in-theater secure communications, weather and navigational data for ground, air and fleet operations and threat warning. Ground-based radar and Defense Support Program satellites monitor ballistic missile launches around the world to guard against a missile attack on North America. Space surveillance radars provide vital information on the location of satellites and space debris for the nation, General Shelton has said that in order to protect against attacks, Space Situational Awareness is much more important than additional hardening or armoring of satellites. As of 2013, Air Force Space Command is considering Space Disaggregation and this could be used to defend against ASATs, by increasing the number of targets that needed to be attacked. S
15. Air Force Global Strike Command – Air Force Global Strike Command is a Major Command of the United States Air Force, headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. AFGSC provides combat-ready forces to conduct strategic nuclear deterrence and global operations in support of combatant commanders. Air Force Global Strike Command is the direct descendant unit of the Cold War-era Strategic Air Command and it holds the lineage, history and honors of SAC. It assumed responsibility for the assets of Air Force Space Command on 1 December 2009. Its creation was outlined in the recommendations of the following the 2007 United States Air Force nuclear weapons incident. The command was activated 7 August 2009, at Barksdale Air Force Base, AFGSC consists of over 31,000 personnel assigned to nine wings, two geographically-separated squadrons and one detachment in the continental United States and deployed to locations around the globe. Changes to the AFGSC units began with the announcement of the 377th Air Base Wings realignment in December 2014 and this means that two bomb wings formerly under Air Combat Command will shift into AFGSC. The units came under the command on 1 October 2015, on October 6,2016, the 595th Command and Control Group was activated at Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska to assume the responsibility for the Boeing E-4 NAOC mission. The command has an area of responsibility as a subordinate component command of United States Strategic Command. AFGSC is one of two USAF component commands in USSTRATCOM, the other being Air Force Space Command, the mission of The Mighty Eighth is to safeguard Americas interests through strategic deterrence and global combat power. Eighth Air Force controls long-range nuclear-capable bomber assets throughout the United States and its flexible, conventional and nuclear deterrence mission provides the capability to deploy forces and engage enemy threats from home station or forward positioned, anywhere, any time. The 8th Air Force motto is Deterrence through strength, global strike on demand, the Missouri Air National Guards 131st Bomb Wing is an associate unit of the 509th Bomb Wing at Whiteman, flying the B-2A Spirit. If federalized, it is gained by Eighth Air Force, the Air Force Reserve Commands 307th Bomb Wing is an associate unit of the 2d Bomb Wing at Barksdale AFB, flying the B-52H Stratofortress. If activated, it is gained by Eighth Air Force Offensive aircraft assets include the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit, Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, and Boeing B-1B Lancer. Headquarters, Twentieth Air Force – Francis E. Warren Air Force Base, designated as USSTRATCOMs Task Force 214, 20th Air Force provides on-alert, combat-ready ICBMs to the President of the United States. The ICBMs are on 24-hour/365-day alert and are ready to launch on any given day, aFGSCs Twentieth Air Force is the Air Forces lead command for and largest operator of UH-1N Huey helicopters. The UH-1N supports ICBM operations in missile fields controlled by F. E. Warren, Malmstrom, in 2015, the 582d Helicopter Group was activated to supervise the three UH-1 squadrons. Schlesinger led an investigation into the status of U. S. Air Force nuclear surety, Secretary Schlesingers recommendation was the creation of a single major command under which all Air Force nuclear assets should be placed for better accountability
16. 91st Space Wing – The 91st Missile Wing is a United States Air Force unit assigned to the Air Force Global Strike Command Twentieth Air Force. It is stationed at Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota as a tenant unit, the 91 MW is one of the Air Forces three intercontinental ballistic missile wings. The wings missile complex stretches over 8,500 square miles—approximately the same size as Massachusetts, the wings on-alert missiles are under the operational control of the nations strategic war-fighting command, U. S. Strategic Command, based at Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska. The wings predecessor, the World War II 91st Bombardment Group was a Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress unit formed at MacDill Field, Florida and it was one of the first United States Army Air Forces heavy bombardment groups deployed to Europe in 1942. As part of Strategic Air Command, the 91st wing was one of SACs longest-lasting and it was a strategic reconnaissance wing from 1948 to 1957 and a B-52 bombardment wing from 1963 to 1968. Its men flew virtually every plane in the SAC inventory and it became a missile wing in June 1968. On 1 July 2008 it was designated as the 91st Missile Wing, the 91st Missile Wing is commanded by Colonel Michael J. Lutton. Its Command Chief Master Sergeant is Chief Master Sergeant John A. Burks, the wings major organizations include, 91st Operations Group 91st Maintenance Group 91st Missile Maintenance Squadron 791st Maintenance Squadron. 91st Security Forces Group The wing headquarters includes several special staff functions, such as plans and inspections, financial management, under this plan, it was assigned the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Group, which had been at McGuire for four months, as its operational element. The wing and group moved to Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana in 1949, rB-29J bombers were assigned to the wing and its primary mission was global strategic reconnaissance. The group was inactivated in June 1952 when Strategic Air Command converted to the Dual Deputate organization, under this plan flying squadrons reported to the wing Deputy Commander for Operations and maintenance squadrons reported to the wing Deputy Commander for Maintenance. The squadrons had been attached to the wing and the reduced to a paper unit in February 1951. In 1950 the wing began receiving air refueling aircraft, first modified KB-29s, in 1950, the 91st was redesignated the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, Medium. At Barksdale, its headquarters was integrated with that of the 301st Bombardment Wing from April 1950 to February 1951. Although each wing conducted independent tactical operations, both were commanded by the same headquarters, the wing detached components for up to three months, primarily to England, and maintained detachments from other units, to provide ongoing reconnaissance of overseas areas. On 11 September 1951, the Wing moved to Lockbourne Air Force Base, the mission of the 91st SRW was to provide aerial reconnaissance and mapping services. It was equipped with aircraft fitted with cameras to perform this mission, including B/RB-45, the RB-45C unit was attached to the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron and began flying reconnaissance missions over northwestern Korea. The RB-45Cs were able to evade the MiGs for several months, at that time, it was decided that RB-45s could no longer go into northwestern Korea without fighter escort
17. 91st Air Refueling Squadron – The 91st Air Refueling Squadron is part of the 6th Air Mobility Wing at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. It operates the Boeing KC-135R Stratotanker aircraft conducting air refueling missions, the squadron was first activated in January 1941 as the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron at Langley Field, Virginia. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the squadron performed antisubmarine patrols, in the spring of 1942 it was renamed the 391st Bombardment Squadron and became part of the 34th Bombardment Group, to which it had been attached since activation. The squadron moved to the western United States and trained until April 1944 when it moved to the European Theater of Operations and it returned to the United States in the summer of 1945 and was inactivated. The squadron provides air refueling and airlift for combatant commanders and it operates the Boeing KC-135R Stratotanker, a long-range tanker aircraft capable of refueling a variety of aircraft in mid-air, anywhere in the world and under any weather condition. The 91sts KC-135s have supported US military operations all over the world and it was initially assigned to General Headquarters Air Force, but was attached to the 34th Bombardment Group. Along with the 34th Group, the moved to Westover Field. RTUs were oversized units which trained aircrews prior to their deployment to combat theaters, on 15 December 1942 the squadron moved to Blythe Army Air Base, California a base of the Desert Training Center. The unit provided cadres for a number of heavy bomber units served with Eighth Air Force during this period. The 391st began training with Consolidated B-24 Liberators for overseas combat operations on 5 January 1944, the 34th Group arrived at its permanent station, RAF Mendlesham, England, in April 1944 and entered combat on 23 May 1944. It supported ground forces at Saint-Lô in late July and struck V-1 flying bomb sites, gun emplacements. The 34th group flew its last B-24 mission on 24 August 1944, the squadron engaged primarily in bombardment of strategic objectives from October 1944 to February 1945. During this period the squadron supported ground forces during the Battle of the Bulge from December 1944 to January 1945. The 391st flew its last combat mission on 20 April 1945, after V-E Day the squadron flew missions carrying food to flooded areas of the Netherlands and transported prisoners of war from German camps to Allied centers. The squadron redeployed to the United States in June and July 1945, the first elements of the air echelon departed 19 June 1945. The ground echelon sailed aboard the RMS Queen Elizabeth from Southampton on 6 August 1945, upon arrival in the states, unit personnel were given 30 days leave. The squadron reassembled at Sioux Falls Army Air Field, South Dakota, the 91st Air Refueling Squadron was activated at Barksdale Air Force Base as a Boeing KB-29 Superfortress air refueling squadron in April 1950. The squadrons parent 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Group was equipped with North American RB-45 Tornados, in the fall of 1950, the first air refueling of a jet bomber took place when a squadron Boeing KB-29P Superfortress refueled one of the groups Tornados
18. 91st Missile Wing – The 91st Missile Wing is a United States Air Force unit assigned to the Air Force Global Strike Command Twentieth Air Force. It is stationed at Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota as a tenant unit, the 91 MW is one of the Air Forces three intercontinental ballistic missile wings. The wings missile complex stretches over 8,500 square miles—approximately the same size as Massachusetts, the wings on-alert missiles are under the operational control of the nations strategic war-fighting command, U. S. Strategic Command, based at Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska. The wings predecessor, the World War II 91st Bombardment Group was a Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress unit formed at MacDill Field, Florida and it was one of the first United States Army Air Forces heavy bombardment groups deployed to Europe in 1942. As part of Strategic Air Command, the 91st wing was one of SACs longest-lasting and it was a strategic reconnaissance wing from 1948 to 1957 and a B-52 bombardment wing from 1963 to 1968. Its men flew virtually every plane in the SAC inventory and it became a missile wing in June 1968. On 1 July 2008 it was designated as the 91st Missile Wing, the 91st Missile Wing is commanded by Colonel Michael J. Lutton. Its Command Chief Master Sergeant is Chief Master Sergeant John A. Burks, the wings major organizations include, 91st Operations Group 91st Maintenance Group 91st Missile Maintenance Squadron 791st Maintenance Squadron. 91st Security Forces Group The wing headquarters includes several special staff functions, such as plans and inspections, financial management, under this plan, it was assigned the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Group, which had been at McGuire for four months, as its operational element. The wing and group moved to Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana in 1949, rB-29J bombers were assigned to the wing and its primary mission was global strategic reconnaissance. The group was inactivated in June 1952 when Strategic Air Command converted to the Dual Deputate organization, under this plan flying squadrons reported to the wing Deputy Commander for Operations and maintenance squadrons reported to the wing Deputy Commander for Maintenance. The squadrons had been attached to the wing and the reduced to a paper unit in February 1951. In 1950 the wing began receiving air refueling aircraft, first modified KB-29s, in 1950, the 91st was redesignated the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, Medium. At Barksdale, its headquarters was integrated with that of the 301st Bombardment Wing from April 1950 to February 1951. Although each wing conducted independent tactical operations, both were commanded by the same headquarters, the wing detached components for up to three months, primarily to England, and maintained detachments from other units, to provide ongoing reconnaissance of overseas areas. On 11 September 1951, the Wing moved to Lockbourne Air Force Base, the mission of the 91st SRW was to provide aerial reconnaissance and mapping services. It was equipped with aircraft fitted with cameras to perform this mission, including B/RB-45, the RB-45C unit was attached to the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron and began flying reconnaissance missions over northwestern Korea. The RB-45Cs were able to evade the MiGs for several months, at that time, it was decided that RB-45s could no longer go into northwestern Korea without fighter escort
19. Minuteman III – The LGM-30 Minuteman is a U. S. land-based intercontinental ballistic missile, in service with the Air Force Global Strike Command. As of 2016, the LGM-30G Minuteman III version is the only land-based ICBM in service in the United States, development of the Minuteman began in the mid-1950s as the outgrowth of basic research into solid fuel rocket motors which indicated an ICBM based on solids was possible. Such a missile could stand ready for extended periods of time with little maintenance, in comparison, existing U. S. missile designs using liquid fuels required a lengthy fueling process immediately before launch, which left them open to the possibility of surprise attack. This potential for immediate launch gave the missile its name, like the Revolutionary Wars Minutemen, Minuteman entered service in 1962 as a weapon tasked primarily with the deterrence role, threatening Soviet cities with a counterattack if the U. S. was attacked. However, with the development of the U. S, the Minuteman-II entered service in 1965 with a host of upgrades to improve its accuracy and survivability in the face of an anti-ballistic missile system the Soviets were known to be developing. Minuteman-III was the first multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle ICBM to be deployed, each missile can carry up to three nuclear warheads, which have a yield in the range of 300 to 500 kilotons. By February 2018 this will be reduced to 400 armed missiles, with 50 unarmed missiles in reserve, the Air Force plans to keep the missile in service until at least 2030. It is one component of the U. S. nuclear triad—the other two parts of the triad being the Trident submarine-launched ballistic missile, and nuclear weapons carried by long-range strategic bombers, Minuteman owes its existence largely to the efforts of then Air Force Colonel Edward N. Hall. Solid fuels were already used in rockets, but strictly for short-range uses. But Hall was convinced that they could be used for a true ICBM with 5,500 nautical miles range, to achieve the required energy, that year Hall began funding research at Boeing and Thiokol into the use of ammonium perchlorate composite propellant. Adapting a concept developed in the UK, they cast the fuel into large cylinders with a hole running along the inner axis. This allowed the fuel to burn along the length of the cylinder, rather than just the end as in earlier designs. The increased burn rate meant increased thrust, in comparison, older designs burned primarily from one end to the other, meaning that at any instant one small section of the fuselage was being subject to extreme loads and temperatures. Guidance of an ICBM is based not only on the direction the missile is travelling, too much thrust and the warhead will overshoot its target, too little and it will fall short. This appeared at first to be a problem, but in the end was solved in almost trivial fashion. A series of ports were added inside the nozzle that were opened when the guidance systems called for engine cut-off. The reduction in pressure was so abrupt that the last burning fuel ejected itself, the first to make use of these developments was not the Air Force, but the Navy. They had been involved in a joint program with the US Army to develop the liquid-fueled Jupiter missile and they felt that liquid fuels were too dangerous to use onboard ships, and especially submarines
20. Intercontinental ballistic missile – An intercontinental ballistic missile is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of 5,500 kilometres primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery. Similarly, conventional, chemical, and biological weapons can also be delivered with varying effectiveness, most modern designs support multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles, allowing a single missile to carry several warheads, each of which can strike a different target. Early ICBMs had limited precision that allowed them to be used only against the largest targets such as cities and they were seen as a safe basing option, one that would keep the deterrent force close to home where it would be difficult to attack. Attacks against military targets, if desired, still demanded the use of a more precise manned bomber, the result is that the power of a nuclear explosion to rupture hardened structures is greatly decreased by the distance from the impact point of the nuclear weapon. So a near-direct hit is generally necessary, as only diminishing returns are gained by increasing bomb yield, second- and third-generation designs dramatically improved accuracy to the point where even the smallest point targets can be successfully attacked. Short and medium-range ballistic missiles are known collectively as theatre ballistic missiles, the ICBM A9/A10 rocket initially was intended to be guided by radio, but was changed to be a piloted craft after the failure of Operation Elster. The second stage of the A9/A10 rocket was tested a few times in January and February 1945, the progenitor of the A9/A10 was the German V-2 rocket, also designed by von Braun and widely used at the end of World War II to bomb British and Belgian cities. All of these rockets used liquid propellants, in the immediate post-war era, the US and USSR both started rocket research programs based on the German wartime designs, especially the V-2. In the US, each branch of the military started its own programs, in the USSR, rocket research was centrally organized, although several teams worked on different designs. Early designs from both countries were short-range missiles, like the V-2, but improvements quickly followed, in the USSR early development was focused on missiles able to attack European targets. This changed in 1953 when Sergei Korolyov was directed to development of a true ICBM able to deliver newly developed hydrogen bombs. Given steady funding throughout, the R-7 developed with some speed, the first launch took place on 15 May 1957 and led to an unintended crash 400 km from the site. The first successful test followed on 21 August 1957, the R-7 flew over 6,000 km, the first strategic-missile unit became operational on 9 February 1959 at Plesetsk in north-west Russia. It was the same R-7 launch vehicle that placed the first artificial satellite in space, Sputnik, the first human spaceflight in history was accomplished on a derivative of R-7, Vostok, on 12 April 1961, by Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. The U. S. initiated ICBM research in 1946 with the RTV-A-2 Hiroc project and this was a three-stage effort with the ICBM development not starting until the third stage. However, funding was cut after only three successful launches in 1948 of the second stage design, used to test variations on the V-2 design. With overwhelming air superiority and truly intercontinental bombers, the newly forming US Air Force did not take the problem of ICBM development seriously. Things changed in 1953 with the Soviet testing of their first thermonuclear weapon, the Atlas A first flew on 11 June 1957, the flight lasted only about 24 seconds before the rocket blew up
21. Minot Air Force Base – Minot Air Force Base is a U. S. Air Force installation in Ward County, North Dakota,13 miles north of the city of Minot via U. S.83. In the 2010 census, the base was counted as a CDP with a population of 5,521. Minot AFB is the home of two wings, the 5th Bomb Wing and 91st Missile Wing, both of the Global Strike Command. When SAC was inactivated in 1992, the mission of the base was divided between two commands, with missiles going to the Air Force Space Command and manned bombers to the Air Combat Command. With the establishment of the Air Force Global Strike Command in 2009, missiles and manned bombers were transferred from AFSPC and ACC to AFGSC in the late 2009 and early 2010. The primary mission of the 5th Bomb Wing is to maintain and operate B-52H bombers assigned to the 23d Bomb Squadron, Minot AFB is one of two remaining bases with B-52s, the other is Barksdale AFB in Bossier City, Louisiana. The 5th Bomb Wing is composed of, 5th Operations Group, the 5th OG comprises the 23rd Bomb Squadron, 69th Bomb Squadron, and the 5th Operations Support Squadron. 5th Maintenance Group supports the operations of both the 5th Bomb Wing and 91st Missile Wing and it provides on- and off-equipment maintenance on B-52Hs, and special support on Minuteman III missiles and UH-1N helicopters. The group also provides munitions, aircraft maintenance and maintenance operations support, Squadrons assigned to the 5th MG are the 5th Munitions, Detachment 1, 5th Maintenance Squadron, 5th Maintenance Ops Squadron and 5th Aircraft Maintenance Squadron. 5th Medical Group offers outpatient services including family practice, dental, pediatrics, aerospace medicine, physical therapy, optometry, the group consists of the 5th Medical Operations Squadron and 5th Medical Support Squadron. The 91st Missile Wing of the Global Strike Command is responsible for maintaining the Minuteman III nuclear missiles, previously known as the 91st Space Wing, it was renamed as a missile wing in June 2008. It is one of the Air Force’s three operational intercontinental ballistic missile units, with Malmstrom AFB at Great Falls, Montana, and F. E. Warren AFB at Cheyenne, Wyoming. In addition to its missiles, the wing operates a squadron of UH-1N Twin Huey helicopters in support of missile. Through its five squadrons, the remains a key facet of The United States deterrent force. Today, the group is responsible for providing maintenance and logistics support for the wing’s ICBM fleet, construction of Minot AFB began in May 1956 and it officially opened on 10 January 1957, named for the nearby city of Minot. The initial USAF host unit was the Air Defense Command 32d Air Base Group, the ADC 32d Fighter Group was the first operational unit at Minot, with its 433d Fighter-Interceptor squadron. However, no aircraft were assigned to the unit, and January 1958 the 433d FIS was inactivated and it was replaced in February 1960 by the 5th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, transferred to Minot from Suffolk County AFB on Long Island, New York. The 5th FIS flew the F-106 Delta Dart and later the F-15A Eagle, a Semi Automatic Ground Environment facility was built and activated in June 1961
22. North Dakota – North Dakota is the 39th state of the United States, having been admitted to the union on November 2,1889. The state capital is Bismarck, and the largest city is Fargo, North Dakota is the 19th most extensive but the 4th least populous and the 4th least densely populated of the 50 United States. The development has driven strong job and population growth, and low unemployment, North Dakota is located in the U. S. region known as the Great Plains. The state shares the Red River of the North with Minnesota on the east, South Dakota is to the south, Montana is to the west, and the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba are to the north. North Dakota is situated near the middle of North America with a marker in Rugby. With an area of 70,762 square miles, North Dakota is the 19th largest state, the western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains as well as the northern part of the Badlands, which are to the west of the Missouri River. The states high point, White Butte at 3,506 feet, the region is abundant in fossil fuels including natural gas, crude oil and lignite coal. The Missouri River forms Lake Sakakawea, the third largest man-made lake in the United States, the central region of the state is divided into the Drift Prairie and the Missouri Plateau. The eastern part of the consists of the flat Red River Valley. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is also found in the east. Eastern North Dakota is overall flat, however, there are significant hills, most of the state is covered in grassland, crops cover most of eastern North Dakota but become increasingly sparse in the center and farther west. This diverse terrain supports nearly 2,000 species of plants, the state of North Dakota is home to the geographical center of North America located near Rugby, North Dakota North Dakota has a continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. The temperature differences are rather extreme because of its far inland position and being in the center of the Northern Hemisphere, with equal distances to the North Pole. As such, summers are almost subtropical in nature, but winters are cold enough to plant hardiness is very low. Native American peoples lived in what is now North Dakota for thousands of years before the coming of Europeans and their tribes included the Mandan people, the Dakota people and the Yanktonai, the latter two from the Lakota peoples. The first European to reach the area was the French-Canadian trader Pierre Gaultier, sieur de La Vérendrye, in 1762 the region became part of Spanish Louisiana until 1802. Dakota Territory was settled sparsely by European Americans until the late 19th century, with the advantage of grants of land, they vigorously marketed their properties, extolling the region as ideal for agriculture. An omnibus bill for statehood for North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and his successor, Benjamin Harrison, signed the proclamations formally admitting North Dakota and South Dakota to the Union on November 2,1889
23. Operation Aphrodite – It was hoped that it would match the British success with Tallboy and Grand Slam ground penetration bombs but the project was dangerous, expensive and unsuccessful. Of 14 missions flown, none resulted in the destruction of a target. Many aircraft lost control and crashed or were shot down by flak, however, a handful of aircraft scored near misses. One notable pilot death was that of LT Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. USNR, the program effectively ceased on January 27,1945 when General Spaatz sent an urgent message to Doolittle, Aphrodite babies must not be launched against the enemy until further orders. By late 1943, General Henry H, arnold had directed Brigadier General Grandison Gardners electronic engineers at Eglin Field, Florida, to outfit war-weary bombers with automatic pilots so that they could be remotely controlled. The plan was first proposed to Major General James H. Doolittle some time in 1944, Doolittle approved the plan for Operation Aphrodite on June 26, and assigned the 3rd Bombardment Division with preparing and flying the drone aircraft, which was to be designated BQ-7. In the U. S. Navys similar project, Operation Anvil, final assignment of responsibility was given to the 562nd Bomb Squadron at RAF Honington in Suffolk. Old Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers were stripped of all normal combat armament and all other non-essential gear, to allow easier exit when the pilot and co-pilot were to parachute out, the canopy was removed. The drone was loaded with explosives weighing more than twice that of a B-17s normal bomb payload, the British Torpex used for the purpose was itself 50% more powerful than TNT. A relatively remote location in Norfolk, RAF Fersfield, was the launch site, initially, RAF Woodbridge had been selected for its long runway, but the possibility of a damaged aircraft that diverted to Woodbridge for landings colliding with a loaded drone caused concerns. After successful turnover of control of the drone, the crew would arm the payload. The mothership would then direct the missile to the target, when the training program was complete, the 562nd Squadron had ten drones and four motherships
24. Third Air Force – The Third Air Force is a numbered air force of the United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa. Its headquarters is Ramstein Air Base, Germany and it is responsible for all U. S. Air Forces in Europe and Africa operations and support activities in the U. S. European Command and U. S. Africa Commands areas of responsibility, during the war, its primary mission became the organization and training of combat units prior to their deployment to the overseas combat air forces. Its Command Chief Master Sergeant is Chief Master Sergeant Phillip L. Easton, the command directs all USAFE and AFAFRICA forces engaged in contingency and wartime operations in the United States European Command and United States Africa Command areas of responsibility. It also has a mission as the U. S. militarys primary liaison to the British government. Through the Partnership for Peace program, Third Air Force manages military contact, Third Air Force is also responsible for contingency planning and support of American security interests in Africa. It is composed of more than 25,000 military people, Third Air Force is assigned more than 200 aircraft, while tasked to provide support servicing to thousands of other transient aircraft that visit its bases each year. It was redesignated Third Air Force on 26 March 1941 with a mission for the defense of the Southeast and it moved to offices in downtown Tampa on 8 January 1941. MacDill Field was one of two major Army Air Corps bases established in the Tampa Bay area in the prior to World War II. Tampas Drew Field Municipal Airport, established in 1928 was leased by the Air Corps in 1940, a major expansion of the airport was initiated and Drew Army Airfield was opened in 1941. Two secondary Army Airfields, Brooksville Army Airfield and Hillsborough Army Airfield were built and opened in early 1942 to support the operations of MacDill. The Bonita Springs Auxiliary Field, located near Fort Myers provided an emergency landing field for MacDill. All of these came under the jurisdiction of Third Air Force. III Fighter Command, the arm, was headquartered at Drew Field. Third Air Force initially provided air defense for the southeastern United States and flew patrols along coastal areas of the Atlantic Ocean. Third Air Force primarily trained B-25 Mitchell and B-26 Marauder medium bomber groups and A-20 Havoc, Third Air Force also provided support to the Army Air Forces School of Applied Tactics in Florida. Also by 1944, the majority of the Numbered Air Forces of the AAF were fighting in parts of the world, such as the Eighth Air Force in Europe. When the Army Air Forces reorganized in 1946, Tactical Air Command was established as one of its three major commands
25. Theodore R. Milton – General Theodore Ross Milton was born at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, in 1915. He enlisted in the Regular Army in 1934 and subsequently entered the United States Military Academy, following graduation, he entered United States Army Air Corps flying training and earned his pilot wings in March 1941. From 1943 to the end of hostilities in Europe, he served in B-17 aircraft with the Eighth Air Force in England. He was promoted to general in October 1957, and was named commander, 41st Air Division, Fifth Air Force, Japan. In 1961 he was promoted to general and reassigned to Clark Air Base in the Philippines as commander, Thirteenth Air Force. He returned to the continental United States in 1965, and served for the next 18 months as chief of staff, Tactical Air Command, Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. In March 1969 Milton assumed duties at NATO Headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, as the deputy chairman, Milton assumed duties as the United States Representative to the NATO Military Committee on August 1,1971. He was promoted to the grade of general effective August 1,1971, Milton retired from the Air Force on July 31,1974. He died of a stroke on August 24,2010, the Secretary of the Air Force authorized the U. S. flag to be flown at half staff on January 21,2011, the day of his interment at Arlington National Cemetery. This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document
26. Prisoner of war – A prisoner of war is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the prisoner of war dates to 1660. The first Roman gladiators were prisoners of war and were named according to their ethnic roots such as Samnite, Thracian, typically, little distinction was made between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although women and children were more likely to be spared. Sometimes, the purpose of a battle, if not a war, was to capture women, a known as raptio. Typically women had no rights, and were legally as chattel. For this he was eventually canonized, during Childerics siege and blockade of Paris in 464, the nun Geneviève pleaded with the Frankish king for the welfare of prisoners of war and met with a favourable response. Later, Clovis I liberated captives after Genevieve urged him to do so, many French prisoners of war were killed during the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. In the later Middle Ages, a number of religious wars aimed to not only defeat, in Christian Europe, the extermination of heretics was considered desirable. Examples include the 13th century Albigensian Crusade and the Northern Crusades, likewise, the inhabitants of conquered cities were frequently massacred during the Crusades against the Muslims in the 11th and 12th centuries. Noblemen could hope to be ransomed, their families would have to send to their captors large sums of wealth commensurate with the status of the captive. In feudal Japan there was no custom of ransoming prisoners of war, in Termez, on the Oxus, all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, and divided in accordance with their usual custom, then they were all slain. The Aztecs were constantly at war with neighbouring tribes and groups, for the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, between 10,000 and 80,400 persons were sacrificed. During the early Muslim conquests, Muslims routinely captured large number of prisoners, aside from those who converted, most were ransomed or enslaved. Christians who were captured during the Crusades, were either killed or sold into slavery if they could not pay a ransom. The freeing of prisoners was highly recommended as a charitable act, there also evolved the right of parole, French for discourse, in which a captured officer surrendered his sword and gave his word as a gentleman in exchange for privileges. If he swore not to escape, he could gain better accommodations, if he swore to cease hostilities against the nation who held him captive, he could be repatriated or exchanged but could not serve against his former captors in a military capacity. Early historical narratives of captured colonial Europeans, including perspectives of literate women captured by the peoples of North America. The writings of Mary Rowlandson, captured in the fighting of King Philips War, are an example
27. Squadron (aviation) – In most armed forces, two or more squadrons will form a group or a wing. Some air forces use the term squadrons for non-flying ground units. In contrast to United States Air Force units where flying squadrons are separate from supporting administrative and aircraft maintenance squadrons, in United States Marine Corps Aviation the nomenclature squadron is also used to designate all battalion-equivalent, aviation support organizations. These squadrons include, wing headquarters, tactical air command, air control, air support, aviation logistics, wing support, exceptions are USN helicopter mine countrmeasures squadrons, USMC composite medium tilt-rotor squadrons, heavy helicopter and light/attack helicopter squadrons, and Marine attack squadrons. Although part of U. S. naval aviation, United States Coast Guard aviation units are centered on an air station versus a squadron or group/wing organizational structure, the one exception to this is the Coast Guards Helicopter Interdiction Squadron, which is engaged primarily in counter-narcotics interdiction operations. In U. S. Army Aviation, flying units may be organized in battalions or squadrons reporting to an aviation brigade, an escadron is the equivalent unit in Frances Armée de lAir. It is normally subdivided into escadrilles of eight aircraft, in the Air Training Corps of the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth nations, a Squadron is a group of cadets who parade regularly. In the U. S. Civil Air Patrol, a squadron is the administrative unit. In the Swedish Air Force a helicopter squadron is a detachment from the Helicopter Wing
28. 322d Bombardment Squadron – The 322d Expeditionary Reconnaissance Squadron is a provisional unit of the United States Air Force, assigned to Air Combat Command to activate or inactivate as needed. The squadron was first activated in 1942 as the 322d Bombardment Squadron, after training in the United States, the squadron entered combat in the European Theater of Operations, where it was awarded two Distinguished Unit Citations for its actions. Following V-E Day, the returned to the United States. The squadron was redesignated the 322d Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron and activated at Barksdale Air Force Base, Squadron elements deployed and again saw combat during the Korean War. It was inactivated at Lockbourne Air Force Base, Ohio in 1957, in 1963, it returned to the bombardment role at Glasgow Air Force Base, Montana. It deployed crews and aircraft to Andersen Air Force Base, which participated in the Vietnam War, the squadron was inactivated on 25 June 1968 as Glasgow closed and older models of the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress were withdrawn from service. The squadron was organized as part of Third Air Force in the southeastern United States before moving to Walla Walla Army Air Base, the squadron deployed to the European Theater of Operations, where it became part of VIII Bomber Command. It was one of the first heavy bombardment squadrons to arrive in England, the 322d flew combat missions over Nazi Germany and Occupied Europe until the surrender of Germany in May 1945. The squadron returned to the United States where it was programmed to become a Boeing B-29 Superfortress squadron, the surrender of Japan canceled these plans and it was inactivated during November 1945. The squadron was redesignated the 322d Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron and activated at Barksdale Air Force Base, the squadron was initially equipped with RB-29 reconnaissance bombers, but soon converted to the North American RB-45 Tornado jet reconnaissance aircraft. Elements of the squadron flew reconnaissance and mapping missions over Korea until mid-1952. The squadron deployed to Johnson Air Base and Yokota Air Base, in September 1951 the squadron moved to Lockbourne Air Force Base, Ohio, where it re-equipped with Boeing RB-47E Stratojets. The squadron performed various worldwide reconnaissance missions until inactivating in November 1957, upon returning from its last deployment the squadron became non-operational and was inactivated on 25 June 1968 as Glasgow closed. afhra. af. mil/. Army Air Forces Stations, A Guide to the Stations Where U. S. Army Air Forces Personnel Served in the United Kingdom During World War II, maxwell AFB, AL, Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center. Maurer, Maurer, ed. Air Force Combat Units of World War II, Washington, DC, Office of Air Force History. Maurer, Maurer, ed. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, Washington, DC, Office of Air Force History. Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947-1977, Washington, DC, Office of Air Force History
29. 323d Bombardment Squadron – The 323d Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force unit. Its last was assigned to the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, stationed at Lockbourne Air Force Base and it was inactivated on 8 November 1957. Established as a B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bomb squadron in early 1942, deployed to European Theater of Operations, assigned to VIII Bomber Command in England, being one of the first heavy bomb squadrons arriving in England. Japanese capitulation canceled plans and was inactivated as a unit in the United States during November 1945. Reactivated in 1947 as a Strategic Air Command long-range strategic reconnaissance squadron, used B-17 and B-29 bombers refitted for reconnaissance missions. Deployed to Japan in 1950, and performed strategic reconnaissance missions over Korea, and the Northern Pacific coast of Communist China, re-equipped with RB-45C Tornado jet reconnaissance aircraft, flying reconnaissance and mapping combat missions over Korea until being assigned to the United States in mid 1952. Re-equipped with RB-47E Stratojets, performed various missions on a worldwide scale until inactivation in 1957. afhra. af. mil/. Maurer, Maurer, ed. Air Force Combat Units of World War II, Washington, DC, Office of Air Force History. Maurer, Maurer, ed. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, Washington, DC, Office of Air Force History
30. 324th Bombardment Squadron – The 324th Expeditionary Reconnaissance Squadron is a provisional United States Air Force unit. Its is assigned to the 409th Air Expeditionary Group at Naval Air Station Sigonella, the squadron was first activated in 1942 as the 324th Bombardment Squadron. After training in the United States, it deployed to the European Theater of Operations, following the end of the war, it returned to the United States and was inactivated in November 1945. The unit was activated as the 324th Reconnaissance Squadron under Strategic Air Command in 1947, the following year it moved to McGuire Air Force Base and began to equip with bombers modified for long range reconnaissance. It continued in the reconnaissance role until 1957, when it was inactivated. In 2009, the squadron was converted to provisional status as the 324th Expeditionary Reconnaissance Squadron, the squadron was established as a Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bomber squadron in early 1942. It trained under Third Air Force in the southeastern United States with final training under Second Air Force in Washington, the 324th deployed to the European Theater of Operations, where it became part of VIII Bomber Command in England. It was one of earliest American heavy bomber squadrons to arrive in England, most personnel were demobilized in England immediately after the end of the war in Europe. The squadron returned to the United States with a headquarters staff and was planned to be re-equipped and remanned as a Boeing B-29 Superfortress squadron. The surrender of Japan canceled these plans and it was inactivated in the United States during November 1945, the squadron was reactivated in 1947 as a Strategic Air Command long-range strategic reconnaissance squadron, although it was not manned or equipped until July 1948. It used B-17 and B-29 bombers refitted for reconnaissance missions, the squadron deployed to Japan in 1950, and performed strategic reconnaissance missions over Korea and the Northern Pacific coast of Peoples Republic of China and the Soviet Union. The 324th Re-equipped with RB-45C Tornado jet reconnaissance aircraft, flying reconnaissance, the squadron re-equipped with RB-47E Stratojets and performed various reconnaissance missions on a worldwide scale until inactivation in 1957. In 2009, the squadron was converted to provisional status as the 324th Expeditionary Reconnaissance Squadron and it was most recently activated in the Mediterranean as part of the 409th Air Expeditionary Group. afhra. af. mil/. Army Air Forces Stations, A Guide to the Stations Where U. S. Army Air Forces Personnel Served in the United Kingdom During World War II, maxwell AFB, AL, Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center. Maurer, Maurer, ed. Air Force Combat Units of World War II, Washington, DC, Office of Air Force History. Maurer, Maurer, ed. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, Washington, DC, Office of Air Force History. Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947-1977, Washington, DC, Office of Air Force History. Battle Colors, Insignia and Markings of the Eighth Air Force In World War II
31. 401st Bombardment Squadron – The 701st Tactical Air Support Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force unit. It was last assigned to the 601st Tactical Air Control Wing at Bergstrom AFB, Texas, during World War II the squadron was active as the 401st Bombardment Squadron and served in combat in the European Theater of Operations. It was awarded two Distinguished Unit Citations for combat in Germany, the squadron was established as the 11th Reconnaissance Squadron, a B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombardment squadron in early 1942. Shortly after activation, the squadron was redesignated the 401st Bombardment Squadron and it trained under Third Air Force in the southeastern United States with final training under Second Air Force in Washington. The 401st flew combat missions over Nazi Germany and Occupied Europe until the German capitulation in May 1945, the Japanese capitulation canceled plans to deploy to the Pacific and the 401st was inactivated in the United States during November 1945. It continued this mission, maintaining readiness to deploy and participating in exercises for the thirteen years until inactivating early in 1980. In 1985, the United States Air Force consolidated these squadrons into a single unit, Army Air Forces Stations, A Guide to the Stations Where U. S. Army Air Forces Personnel Served in the United Kingdom During World War II. Maxwell AFB, AL, Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center, Maurer, Maurer, ed. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II. Washington, DC, Office of Air Force History, Air Force Bases, Vol. I, Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Washington, DC, Office of Air Force History, battle Colors, Insignia and Markings of the Eighth Air Force In World War II
32. Adjutant – Adjutant is a military rank or appointment. An adjutant general is commander of an armys administrative services, Adjutant comes from the Latin adjutans, present participle of the verb adjuvare, to help, the Romans actually used adiutor for the noun. In various uniformed hierarchies, the term is used for number of functions, a regimental adjutant, garrison adjutant etc. is a staff officer, who assists the commanding officer of a regiment, battalion or garrison in the details of regimental, garrison or similar duty. In United States Army squadrons, the adjutant is often the officer-in-charge of the administrative platoon, in the British Army, an Adjutant is usually a senior captain. Until the 1970s the adjutant was also the operations officer. In the British Army adjutants are given field rank and as such are senior by appointment to all other captains, unlike the RAO, the adjutant is a member of the corps or regiment of which their unit is a part. The adjutants job is not solely a backroom one, since he usually accompanies the colonel - Captain David Wood, normally, in a British Infantry battalion, the adjutant controls the battle whilst the CO commands it. As such, the adjutant is usually a man of significant influence within his battalion, in the Foot Guards, the adjutant of the unit in charge of Trooping the Colour is one of three officers on horseback. In many Commonwealth armies, the adjutant performs much the role as in the British Army. There is no RAO position within the Australian Army, where an adjutant performs the role with the assistance of a Chief Clerk. In the US Army, historically the adjutant was generally a member of the branch or regiment of the parent unit. The adjutant general at the battalion-level is generally a captain or senior first lieutenant and, in conjunction with the S-1 section. There is a call announcing the adjutant that is still used in military ceremonies today. In the USMC, the adjutant serves as the administrator for their unit. Per the USMC MOS handbook, Adjutants coordinate administrative matters for Marine Corps staff sections and they ensure that every Marine in their command has administrative resources both for day-to-day tasks and long-term career progression. Adjutants supervise the execution of administrative policies and they receive and route correspondence, preparing responses to any special correspondence. They also manage their units legal matters and monitor fitness reports, in some armies, adjutant is a rank similar to a commonwealth staff sergeant or warrant officer. In the Belgian Army and Luxembourg Army, the ranks are Adjudant, Adjudant-Chef, in Dutch, they are collectively known as Keuronderofficier
33. Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport – The airport was originally Harding Army Air Field during World War II and was used by the United States Army Air Forces Technical Service Command as a maintenance and supply base. Today other than the runways, virtually no traces remain of the military installation, the airport covers an area of 1,250 acres at an elevation of 70 feet above mean sea level. It has three runways, 4L/22R is 7,500 by 150 feet with a surface, 4R/22L is 3,799 by 75 feet with an asphalt surface. Air Traffic Services are provided by dedicated Air Traffic Controllers in the tower and the Terminal Radar Approach Control. For the 12-month period ending August 31,2016, the airport had 72,351 aircraft operations and this classifies it as a Primary Non-hub airport. At that time there were 240 aircraft based at airport, 58% single-engine, 20% multi-engine, 14% jet. This airport is also the airport used by the Louisiana State Police Air Support Unit. Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport has two concourses, Concourse A, and Concourse B, Delta has upgauged some of the regional jets scheduled into BTR to the larger CRJ-700 and CRJ-900 aircraft that offer coach, economy comfort and first class seating options. Delta now also flies the Boeing 717, Douglas MD-88, and Airbus A319 aircraft in, United Express has started flying larger 76 seat ERJ-175 jets in and out of BTR as of 2016. The E-175s offer First, Economy Plus, and Economy Seating, Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport has a 33, 000-square-foot cargo facility. It is currently being expanded to 68,000 square feet, Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport is slightly smaller than might be expected for a city and metro area of its size due in part to its proximity to New Orleans Armstrong International Airport. Despite aggressive advertising campaigns encouraging catchment area residents to utilize the airport, however, the airport is served by the major, network airlines, American, Delta and United. Through them and their global alliance partners, service to destinations worldwide is available, in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, and the ensuing increase in Baton Rouges population, BTR saw its destination portfolio expanded dramatically. New services were initiated to Cincinnati, New York City, Chicago-OHare, Denver, Washington-Reagan, St. Louis, the new destinations were discontinued by the end of 2008 as New Orleans air service returned to pre-Katrina levels. Louisiana Aircraft Inc. a fixed-base operation on the side of the airport has been purchased by a real estate developer. The developer has plans to build more hangar space and has purchased the old Capitol Jet Center / LuxJet FBO located on the east side of the airport, future plans include a ramp and hangars on the north side of the airfield. The increase in space is most noticeable during the College Football season. This future expansion is causing the Army National Guard armory of the 769th Combat Engineer Battalion to relocate to the side of Baton Rouge
34. Louisiana – Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Louisiana is the 31st most extensive and the 25th most populous of the 50 United States and its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the state in the U. S. with political subdivisions termed parishes. The largest parish by population is East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana is bordered by Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, Texas to the west, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Much of the lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh. These contain a rich southern biota, typical examples include birds such as ibis, there are also many species of tree frogs, and fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a process in the landscape. These support a large number of plant species, including many species of orchids. Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, the current Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a period, a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century, many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa, thus concentrating their culture. Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715, when René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane. The suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to information relating to an individual, subject. Thus, roughly, Louis + ana carries the idea of related to Louis, the Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea. As Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened, Louisiana slowly developed, over millions of years, from water into land, and from north to south. The oldest rocks are exposed in the north, in such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Tertiary Era, some 60 million years ago, the history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearings Roadside Geology of Louisiana. The sediments were carried north to south by the Mississippi River
35. MacDill Air Force Base – MacDill Air Force Base is an active United States Air Force base located approximately 4 miles south-southwest of downtown Tampa, Florida. The host wing for MacDill AFB is the 6th Air Mobility Wing of the Air Mobility Command, the 6th Air Mobility Wing is commanded by Colonel April Vogel, and the wings Command Chief Master Sergeant is CMSgt Melanie Noel. The host unit at MacDill AFB is the 6th Air Mobility Wing, MacDill also hosts the Aircraft Operations Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, whose NOAA Corps flies Hurricane Hunter missions in WP-3D Orion and Gulfstream IV aircraft. The 6 AMW is a 3, 000-person force organized into four groups, the 6 AMW also has a collocated Associate wing at MacDill, the 927th Air Refueling Wing of the Air Force Reserve Command. The 6 AMW and the 927 ARW operate and share the same assigned KC-135R Stratotanker aircraft. MacDill Air Force Base, located in south Tampa, was constructed as MacDill Field, with the establishment of the U. S. Air Force as an independent service in 1947, it became MacDill Air Force Base. During the 1950s and 1960s, it was a Strategic Air Command base for B-47, in the early 1960s, it transitioned to a Tactical Air Command installation briefly operating the F-84 Thunderstreak jet fighter before transitioning to the F-4 Phantom II. During the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, it operated F-4 Phantom II fighters, followed by F-16 Fighting Falcons in the mid and late 1980s, both commands are independent from one another and each is commanded by a respective 4-star general or admiral. The noise produced by the aircraft was also considered inappropriate in a densely populated urban area. However, despite recommendations, the base remained open to house. With the disestablishment of Tactical Air Command a few months later, in 1993, the MacDill flightline was permanently reopened for NOAA WP-3D hurricane hunter operations, which had relocated from Miami International Airport. The wing was renamed the 6th Air Mobility Wing following the establishment. MacDill AFB is a significant contributor to Tampas economy and the city is very supportive of the military community, in 2001 and 2003, the Tampa Bay area was awarded the Abilene Trophy, which annually honors the most supportive Air Force city in Air Mobility Command. MacDill historically hosts an air show enjoyed by thousands of spectators each year. However, there were no shows in 2002 and 2003 due to security concerns following the attacks on the United States of Sep,11,2001 and the initiation of Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003. The 2006 show was canceled due to security concerns on base. It was cancelled again in 2013 due to budget constraints. AirFest 2016 was the first-ever airshow to feature a live webcast of the performers, the 6 AMW consists of, 6th Operations Group 91st Air Refueling Squadron Operates the Boeing KC-135R Stratotanker
36. Second Air Force – The Second Air Force is a USAF numbered air force responsible for conducting basic military and technical training for Air Force enlisted members and support officers. In World War II the CONUS unit defended the Northwestern United States and Upper Great Plains regions and during the Cold War, was Strategic Air Command unit with strategic bombers and missiles. Elements of Second Air Force engaged in operations during the Korean War, Vietnam War. The Northwest Air District of the GHQ Air Force was activated on 19 October 1940 at McChord Field along with 3 other CONUS districts, the district was redesignated 2nd Air Force on 9 April 1941. 5th Bombardment Wing was assigned to Second Air Force up to 5 September 1941, on 11 December 1941, four days after the Pearl Harbor attack, 2d Air Force was placed under Western Defense Command. However, on 5 January 1942, it was returned to the Air Force Combat Command, from December 1941, 2d Air Force organized air defense for the northwest Pacific Ocean coastline of the United States and flew antisubmarine patrols along coastal areas until October 1942. It appears that immediately after 7 December 1941, only the 7th, 17th, 39th, as the Second Air Force it became predominantly the training organization of B-17 Flying Fortress and B-24 Liberator heavy bombardment groups. Nearly all new heavy bomb groups organized after Pearl Harbor were organized and trained by Second Air Force OTU units, under the newly organized XX Bomber Command, B-29 aircraft were received from Boeings manufacturing plants and new combat groups were organized and trained. XX Bomber Command and the first B-29 groups were deployed in December 1943 to airfields in India for Operation Matterhorn operations against Japan, a football team made up of Second Air Force personnel defeated Hardin-Simmons University in the 1943 Sun Bowl. A third B-29 organization, XXII Bomber Command was formed by Second Air Force in August 1944, however the organization never got beyond forming Headquarters echelon and Headquarters squadron. Inactivated before any operational groups were assigned, as XX Bomber Command units were reassigned from India to the Marianas, the training of B-29 groups and replacement personnel continued until August 1945 and the end of the Pacific War. With the wars end, Second Air Force was inactivated on 30 March 1946, the command was reactivated on 6 June 1946 under Air Defense Command, at Fort Crook, Nebraska. During this period of the forces history its home base was redesignated Offutt Air Force Base, the Second Air Force assumed responsibility for the air defense of certain portions of the continental United States. In 1947, the 73d Bomb Wing was reactivated with the 338th and 351st Bomb Groups being assigned to it, the wing was assigned to Second Air Force. A third group, the 381st was added in 1948, however SAC was having enough difficulties keeping its front-line active duty bomb units in the air to maintain even minimal pilot proficiency in the late 1940s. The wing and its groups were all inactivated in 1949. The Second Air Force was also assigned the reserve 96th Bomb Wing, which was redesignated an air division. One of these groups was the 440th Troop Carrier Group and it was again inactivated on 1 July 1948
37. Walla Walla Regional Airport – It is owned by the Port of Walla Walla. The airport was the location of the U. S. Army Air Forces Walla Walla Army Air Base in World War II. The War Department announced they would be spending over $7.5 million to construct an Army Air Corps training airfield adjacent to the airfield at Walla Walla. With the old 200-acre municipal airport as a nucleus, they commenced development of the Walla Walla Army Air Base, over 300 buildings were constructed and equipped to house, feed and train approximately 6,000 men at one time. The 91st Bomb Group lays claim to being the first Army Air Forces outfit to utilize the Walla Walla base and they had initially trained in Florida and upon arrival, they trained in B-17 Flying Fortress airplanes. The 91st Bomb Group went on to itself in combat over Europe. Several of these crews made outstanding records during their tour of duty and were well publicized upon their return to the states with such as Jack the Ripper, Memphis Belle. Memphis Belle was the first B-17 to complete 25 missions in Europe, late in 1943, Walla Walla Army Airfield lay idle when the Second Air Force withdrew its B-17 training operation. However, in April of the year, the Fourth Air Force took charge. During the war years, it is estimated more than 8,000 officers. One of its aircraft crashed in September 1944 at the site of the Mission Ridge ski area near Wenatchee, killing all six aboard. In 1947, the newly formed United States Air Force declared the Walla Walla Airfield surplus, a board was formed to manage the airport and the complexities of the facilities transfer. This was the first joint ownership permitted in the entire nation, in 1989, the Port of Walla Walla took over ownership and operational responsibility of the airport from the city and county of Walla Walla. The airport is used for general aviation but is also served by one commercial airline. The Port of Walla Walla, in fact, recently completed a wine incubator project, Walla Walla Regional Airport covers an area of 2,319 acres which contains two paved runways, 2/20 measuring 6,527 by 150 feet and 7/25 measuring 4,486 by 150 feet. There is a VOR on the field operates on 116.4 MHz. For the 12-month period ending December 31,2006, the airport had 28,516 aircraft operations, at that time there were 134 aircraft based at this airport, 82% single-engine, 13% multi-engine, 2% jet, 1% ultralight and 1% glider. Walla Walla University and Skyrunners Corporation operate flight schools on the field, from primary training through multi-engine, commercial, both airlines also operated turboprop aircraft into the airport as well
38. Washington (U.S. state) – It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State or the State of Washington to distinguish it from Washington, Washington is the 18th largest state with an area of 71,362 square miles, and the 13th most populous state with over 7 million people. Washington is the second most populous state on the West Coast and in the Western United States, Mount Rainier, an active stratovolcano, is the states highest elevation at almost 14,411 feet and is the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous United States. Washington is a leading lumber producer and its rugged surface is rich in stands of Douglas fir, hemlock, ponderosa pine, white pine, spruce, larch, and cedar. Manufacturing industries in Washington include aircraft and missiles, shipbuilding and other equipment, lumber, food processing, metals and metal products, chemicals. Washington has over 1,000 dams, including the Grand Coulee Dam, built for a variety of purposes including irrigation, power, flood control, Washington was named after President George Washington by an act of the United States Congress during the creation of Washington Territory in 1853. Washington is the only U. S. state named after a president, confusion over the state of Washington and the city of Washington, D. C. led to renaming proposals during the statehood process for Washington in 1889, which failed to garner support. Washington, D. C. s own statehood movement in the 21st century includes a proposal to use the name State of Washington, Douglass Commonwealth, which would conflict with the current state of Washington. To distinguish it from the capital, Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington state, or, in more formal contexts. Residents of Washington and the Pacific Northwest simply refer to the state as Washington, Washington is the northwestern-most state of the contiguous United States. Washington is bordered by Oregon to the south, with the Columbia River forming the western part, to the west of Washington lies the Pacific Ocean. The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south, bisecting the state, from the Cascade Mountains westward, Western Washington has a mostly marine west coast climate, with mild temperatures and wet winters, autumns and springs, and relatively dry summers. The Cascade Range contains several volcanoes, which reach altitudes significantly higher than the rest of the mountains, from the north to the south, these major volcanoes are Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. Mount Rainier, the tallest mountain in the state, is 50 miles south of the city of Seattle and it is also covered with more glacial ice than any other peak in the contiguous 48 states. Western Washington also is home of the Olympic Mountains, far west on the Olympic Peninsula and these deep forests, such as the Hoh Rainforest, are among the only temperate rainforests in the continental United States. Eastern Washington – the part of the state east of the Cascades – has a dry climate. It includes large areas of steppe and a few truly arid deserts lying in the rain shadow of the Cascades. Farther east, the climate becomes less arid, with annual rainfall increasing as one goes east to 21.2 inches in Pullman, the Okanogan Highlands and the rugged Kettle River Range and Selkirk Mountains cover much of the northeastern quadrant of the state
39. Pendleton, Oregon – Pendleton is a city in Umatilla County, Oregon, United States. Developed along the Umatilla River, Pendleton was named in 1868 by the county commissioners for George H. Pendleton, the population was 16,612 at the 2010 census. The city is the county seat of Umatilla County, Pendleton is the smaller of the two principal cities of the Hermiston-Pendleton Micropolitan Statistical Area. This micropolitan area covers Morrow and Umatilla counties and had a population of 87,062 at the 2010 census. A European-American commercial center began to develop here in 1851, when Dr. William C, McKay established a trading post at the mouth of McKay Creek. A United States Post Office named Marshall was established April 21,1865, the city was incorporated by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on October 25,1880. By 1900, Pendleton had a population of 4,406 and was the fourth-largest city in Oregon, the Pendleton Woolen Mills and Pendleton Round Up became features of the city captured in early paintings by Walter S. Bowman. Like many cities in Eastern Oregon, where thousands of Chinese immigrant workers built the transcontinental railroad, the sector is supposed to have been underlain by a network of tunnels, which are now a tourist attraction. The authenticity as a Chinese tunnel system has been questioned, the town is the cultural center of Eastern Oregon. Pendletons Old town is listed as a Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation have their property nearby. They have established the Wild Horse Casino and golf course on the reservation to generate revenue for development and they have also built the Tamástslikt Cultural Institute, for education and interpretation of their cultures. Pendleton Woolen Mills is a maker of wool blankets, shirts, founded in 1909 by Clarence, Roy and Chauncey Bishop, the company built upon earlier businesses related to the many sheep ranches in the region. A wool-scouring plant opened in Pendleton in 1893 to wash raw wool for shipping, in 1895, the scouring mill was converted into a mill that made wool blankets and robes for Native Americans. Both businesses failed to survive, but the Bishops, with the help of a bond issue, enlarged the mill. They developed a line of garments and blankets with vivid colors. St. Anthony Hospital in Pendleton is a 25-bed medical center, Eastern Oregon Correctional Institution in Pendleton is the only place in Oregon where inmates make Prison Blues denim clothing. The prison also operates a commercial laundry serving customers that include EOCI, the Snake River Correctional Institution, Pendleton High School, a flour mill. In addition, some EOCI inmates work as clerks or have jobs in service or maintenance
40. Redmond, Oregon – Redmond is a city in Deschutes County, Oregon, United States. Incorporated on July 6,1910, the city is on the side of Oregons Cascade Range. From Redmond there is access to opportunities, including mountain biking, fishing, hiking, camping, rock climbing, white-water rafting, skiing. Redmond is a municipality and one of the fastest-growing industrial and residential communities in Oregon. Redmond had a population of 26,215 in 2010, the city encompasses 15.5 square miles and is on a plateau, at an elevation of 3,077 feet. Redmond is 15 miles north of Bend—the county seat of Deschutes County—144 miles from Portland,129 miles from Salem—the capital of Oregon—and 126 miles from Eugene, Redmond was named after Frank T. Redmond, who settled in the area in 1905. It was platted in 1906 by a company which would part of Central Oregon Irrigation District building a canal. Electrification and the Oregon Trunk Railway reached Redmond in 1911, the rail link opened markets for farmers and merchants. By 1930, the town had grown to 1,000, in the 1940s, Redmond was a U. S. Army Air base and commercial air service was established at Roberts Field after World War II. In the 1950s, 60s, 70s, and most of the 80s, however, during the 1990s, the population began to grow along with most of Deschutes County. Between 2000 and 2006, Redmonds population grew 74. 3% and this growth continued through 2006, increasing the population to 23,500. Its growth is fueled by employment and a lower cost of living, the Horse Lava Tube System enters the city at the point of the Redmond Caves. The lava flow created the system continues into the Redmond Canyon. Redmonds climate is typical of the desert with cool nights. Annual precipitation averages between 8 and 10 inches, with an annual snowfall of 24 inches. The winter season in Redmond provides typical daytime temperatures between 10 °F and 40 °F, average nighttime temperatures range anywhere from 0 °F to 40 °F. According to the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map, the average annual minimum temperature in Redmond is −5 °F to −10 °F. A typical Central Oregon summer is marked with daily temperatures around 75 °F to 100 °F during the day, hard frosts happen on occasion during the summer months
41. Fort Dix – Fort Dix, the common name for the Army Support Activity located at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, is a United States Army post. It is located approximately 16.1 miles south-southeast of Trenton, Fort Dix is under the jurisdiction of the Army Installation Management Command. Fort Dix, established in 1917, was designated as part of an adjoining U. S. Air Force, however, it remains commonly known as Fort Dix, ASA Dix, or Dix as of 2015. In 2015, Colonel Shelley Balderson became Fort Dix first female commander in the bases 100-year history, Colonel Balderson rotated out of command in 2016, and the current commander is Colonel Martin Marty Klein. The supporting component at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst is the United States Air Force, the 87 ABW provides installation management to all of JBMDL while both the Navy and Army retain command and control of their mission, personnel, equipment and component-specific services. While the Joint Base has an assigned Deputy Joint Base Commander for both Army and Navy, neither the Navy nor the Army bases are subordinate to the Joint Base, the commanders of both Fort Dix and Lakehurst serve also as a Deputy Joint Base Commanders. Dix has a history of mobilizing, training and demobilizing Soldiers from as early as World War I through April 2015 when Forts Bliss, in 1978, the first female recruits entered basic training at Fort Dix. In 1991, Dix trained Kuwaiti civilians in military skills so they could take part in their countrys liberation. Dix ended its active Army training mission in 1991 due to Base Realignment and Closure Commission recommendations, presently, it serves as a joint training site for all components and all services of the U. S. military and is commanded by an Army Colonel. Marine Aircraft Group 49 99th Regional Support Command 2d Brigade, 75th Division USCG Atlantic Strike Team U. S, Camp Dix, as it was known at the time, was a training and staging ground for units during World War I. Though the camp was a camp for the New York Port of Embarkation it did not fall under the direct control of that command with the War Department retaining direct jurisdiction. The camp became a center after the war. Between the World Wars, Camp Dix was a reception, training, Camp Dix became Fort Dix on March 8,1939, and the installation became a permanent Army post. During and after World War II the fort served the purpose as in the first World War. It served as a training and staging ground during the war, on July 15,1947, Fort Dix became a basic training center and the home of the 9th Infantry Division. In 1954, the 9th moved out and the 69th Infantry Division made the home until it was deactivated on March 16,1956. During the Vietnam War rapid expansion took place, a mock Vietnam village was constructed and soldiers received Vietnam-specific training before being deployed. Since Vietnam, Fort Dix has sent soldiers to Operation Desert Shield, Desert Storm, Bosnia, Afghanistan, the Atlantic Strike Team of the U. S. Coast Guard is based at Fort Dix
42. New Jersey – New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania, New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state but the 11th-most populous and the most densely populated of the 50 United States. New Jersey lies entirely within the statistical areas of New York City. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, in the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes made the first European settlements. New Jersey was the site of decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities such as Camden, Paterson, Newark, Trenton, around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa. The pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains, around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers that reached New Jersey. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as rivers, swamps. New Jersey was originally settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact, scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land that is now New Jersey. The Lenape society was divided into clans that were based upon common female ancestors. These clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign, Turtle, Turkey, and Wolf and they first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, and their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade. The Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey, the Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of ownership was not recognized by the Lenape. The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which eventually became the Bergen, peter Minuits purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and it was from the Royal Square in St. Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James then granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War, Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton, the area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the states inception, New Jersey has been characterized by ethnic, New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants
43. RMS Queen Mary – RMS Queen Mary is a retired ocean liner that sailed primarily on the North Atlantic Ocean from 1936 to 1967 for the Cunard Line. The two ships were a British response to the built by German and French companies in the late 1920s. Queen Mary was the flagship of the Cunard Line from May 1936 until October 1946 when she was replaced in that role by Queen Elizabeth, with the outbreak of the Second World War, she was converted into a troopship and ferried Allied soldiers for the duration of the war. Following the war, Queen Mary was refitted for passenger service, the two ships dominated the transatlantic passenger transportation market until the dawn of the jet age in the late 1950s. By the mid-1960s, Queen Mary was ageing and, though still among the most popular transatlantic liners, was operating at a loss, after several years of decreased profits for Cunard Line, Queen Mary was officially retired from service in 1967. She left Southampton for the last time on 31 October 1967 and sailed to the port of Long Beach, California, United States, where she remains permanently moored. Much of the machinery, including one of the two rooms, three of the four propellers, and all of the boilers, were removed. The ship serves as a tourist attraction featuring restaurants, a museum, the ship is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The National Trust for Historic Preservation has accepted the Queen Mary as part of the Historic Hotels of America, with Germany launching Bremen and Europa into service, Britain did not want to be left behind in the shipbuilding race. White Star Line began construction on their 80, 000-ton Oceanic in 1928, while Cunard planned a 75, 000-ton unnamed ship of their own. Construction on the ship, then only as Hull Number 534. Work was halted in December 1931 due to the Great Depression, the loan was granted, with enough money to complete Queen Mary and to build a sister ship, Hull No. Both lines agreed and the merger was completed on 10 May 1934, work on Queen Mary resumed immediately and she was launched on 26 September 1934. Completion ultimately took 3 1⁄2 years and cost 3.5 million pounds sterling, much of the ships interior was designed and constructed by the Bromsgrove Guild. The ship was named after Queen Mary, consort of King George V, until her launch, the name she was to be given was kept a closely guarded secret. And so, the legend goes, the delegation had of course no other choice and this story was denied by company officials, and traditionally the names of sovereigns have only been used for capital ships of the Royal Navy. Some support for the story was provided by Washington Post editor Felix Morley, in his 1979 autobiography, For the Record, Morley wrote that he was placed at table with Sir Percy Bates, chairman of the Cunard Line. Bates told him the story of the naming of the ship on condition you wont print it during my lifetime
44. Greenock – Greenock is a town and administrative centre in the Inverclyde council area in Scotland and a former burgh within the historic county of Renfrewshire, located in the west central Lowlands of Scotland. It forms part of an urban area with Gourock to the west. The 2011 census showed that Greenock had a population of 44,248 and it lies on the south bank of the Clyde at the Tail of the Bank where the River Clyde expands into the Firth of Clyde. The name of the town has had various spellings over time and it was printed in early Acts of Parliament as Grinok, Greenhok, Grinock, Greenhoke, Greinnock, and later as Greinok. Old Presbyterial records used Grenok, a common spelling until it was changed to Greenock around 1700 and it has also been suggested that Grian cnoc or sunny hill could refer to the hill on which the castle and mansion house stood, but this has not found much support. The towns modern indoor shopping centre is called The Oak Mall, the name is also recalled in a local song. Significantly, no green oak appears on the coat of arms which features the three chalices of the Shaw Stewarts, a sailing ship in full sail and two herring above the motto God Speed Greenock. Hugh de Grenock was created a Scottish Baron in 1296, around 1540 the adjoining barony of Finnart was passed to the Schaw family, extending their holdings westward to the boundary of Gourock, and in 1542 Sir John Schaw founded Wester Greenock castle. The coast of Greenock formed a bay with three smaller indentations, the Bay of Quick was known as a safe anchorage as far back as 1164. To its east, a sandy bay ran eastwards from the Old Kirk, the fishing village of Greenock developed along this bay, and around 1635 Sir John Schaw had a jetty built into the bay which became known as Sir Johns Bay. In that year he obtained a Charter raising Greenock to a Burgh of Barony with rights to a weekly market, further east, Saint Laurence Bay curved round past the Crawfurd Barony of Easter Greenock to Garvel Point. When a pier was built making the bay an important harbour, in 1642 it was made into the Burgh of Barony of Crawfurdsdyke, and part of the ill-fated Darien Scheme set out from this pier in 1697. This town was later renamed Cartsdyke, the fishing trade grew prosperous, with barrels of salted herring exported widely, and shipping trade developed. As seagoing ships could not go further up the River Clyde, a separate Barony of Cartsburn was created, the first baron being Thomas Craufurd. The work was completed in 1710, with quays extended out into Sir Johns Bay to enclose the harbour, in 1711 the shipbuilding industry was founded when Scotts leased ground between the harbour and the West Burn to build fishing boats. A whaling business operated for about 40 years, in 1714 Greenock became a custom house port as a branch of Port Glasgow, and for a period this operated from rooms leased in Greenock. Receipts rose rapidly from the 1770s, and in 1778 the custom house moved to new premises at the West Quay of the harbour. By 1791 a new pier was constructed at the East Quay, in 1812 Europes first steamboat service was introduced by PS Comet with frequent sailings between Glasgow, Greenock and Helensburgh, and as trade built up the pier became known as Steamboat Quay
45. Kimbolton Airfield – RAF Kimbolton is a former Royal Air Force station located 8 miles west of Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, England. The airfield was built in 1941 for RAF Bomber Command. Kimbolton was assigned to the United States Army Air Forces Eighth Air Force and it was given the designation USAAF Station 117. The airfield was opened in 1942 and was first used by the USAAF Eighth Air Force 91st Bombardment Group, arriving from Walla Walla AAF, the 91st was assigned to the 1st Combat Bombardment Wing of the 1st Bombardment Division. The group transferred to RAF Bassingbourn on 14 October, the next USAAF unit to use Kimbolton was the 17th Bombardment Group, arriving in October from Barksdale AAF Louisiana. The 17th was originally intended to use RAF Bassingbourn, however, with the move of the 91st, the unit utilized Kimbolton as its shorter runways could accommodate their smaller, twin-engined medium bombers. The Group departed in November for Telergma, Algeria, with its last elements leaving in early December, with the departure of the B-26s, extensions were made to the NW-SE runway to facilitate the operation of fully loaded B-17s. On 21 May 1943, the 379th Bombardment Group arrived from Sioux City AAF, the 379th was assigned to the 41st Combat Bombardment Wing of the 1st Bombardment Division. The Group received another DUC for flying without fighter protection into central Germany to attack aircraft factories on 11 January 1944. On several occasions the Group attacked interdictory targets and operated in support of ground forces, the combat record of the 379th was the most successful of all the Eighth Air Force heavy bomber groups. It held records as far as bomb tonnage dropped -26,459 tons - more than any other unit including those operational before the 379th arrived in the UK. It also exceeded all other UK Bomb Groups in the number of missions flown. Lt Bruce E. Mills was the pilot of that mission, after V-E Day, the 379th Bomb Group was transferred to Casablanca, French Morocco, during June 1945. The unit was inactivated in Morocco during July, legacy The 379th Bomb Wing and 524th Bomb Squadron were reactivated by Strategic Air Command and requipped with Boeing B-47 Stratojet medium bombers at Homestead AFB, Florida, on 1 November 1955. Upon activation, the unit was bestowed the honors, history, in January 1961, the wing was redesignated as a heavy bombardment wing and relocated to Wurtsmith AFB, Michigan where it was equipped with Boeing B-52 Stratofortress and KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft. Throughout the Cold War, the played a major role in the defense of the United States. Post Second World War The wing meritoriously served in combat during the Vietnam War, Wurtsmith AFB, named after Major General Paul B. Wurtsmith was closed by BRAC action in 1993 and the 379th Bombardment Wing was disestablished the same year, in 2003, the 379th was reactivated in provisional status as the 379th Air Expeditionary Wing of the Air Combat Command, assigned to Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar
46. English Midlands – The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia. It borders South East England, South West England, North West England, Yorkshire and Humber, East of England and its largest city is Birmingham, and it was an important location for the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries. The greater part of the area is formed of two English statistical regions, the West Midlands and East Midlands, the Midlands does not correspond to any current administrative area, and there is therefore no strict definition. With more restricted boundaries than the area known as the Midlands. These are also constituencies of the European Parliament, the East Midlands region comprises the shire counties of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire and Nottinghamshire and the unitary county of Rutland. The two regions have a population of 10,135,000, and an area of 11,053 sq mi. The largest Midlands conurbation, which includes the cities of Birmingham, various part of the Midlands are somewhat poetically referred to as the Heart of England, especially in tourist literature. The various areas of the Midlands have their own character, giving rise to a high number of local history. Nottingham played a part in the English Civil War, which is commemorated in a number of place names. Areas such as Derbyshires Amber Valley and Erewash combine attractive countryside with industrial heritage and are home to historic canals, the Black Country, broadly the boroughs of Dudley, Sandwell, Wolverhampton and Walsall, played an important part in the Industrial Revolution. The Midlands is predominantly low-lying and flat in character, although isolated hills such as Turners Hill have extensive views. Upland areas lie in the west and north of the region with the Shropshire Hills to the west, close to the Welsh border, the Shropshire Hills reach heights of over 500 m, including the Long Mynd, Clee Hills and Stiperstones ridge. Wenlock Edge, running through the middle of the Shropshire Hills AONB, is a long, low ridge, the Peak District reaches heights of between 300 m and 600 m with Kinder Scout being the highest point at 636 m. Further south, the Welsh border reaches over 700 m high, at Black Mountain, other small areas of lower hills in the Midlands include Cannock Chase in Staffordshire, Charnwood Forest in Leicestershire, and the Lincolnshire Wolds in Lincolnshire. The Cotswolds – designated an AONB in 1966, – extend for over 90 miles through six counties, but centred on Gloucestershire. They reach a highest point of 330 m at Cleeve Hill, the Malverns are formed of some of the oldest rock in England and extend for some 13 km through two West Midlands counties as well as northern Gloucestershire in the southwest. The highest point of the hills is the Worcestershire Beacon at 425 m above sea level, the Midlands has a temperate maritime climate. With cold, cloudy, wet winters and comfortable, mostly dry, the temperature usually ranges from −0.4 °C during winter nights to 24.1 °C during summer days
47. Boise Airport – Boise Airport is a joint civil-military airport three miles south of Boise in Ada County, Idaho, United States. The airport is operated by the city of Boise Department of Aviation and is overseen by an Airport Commission, Boise is a landing rights airfield requiring international general aviation flights to receive permission from a Customs and Border Protection officer before landing. The 124 FW operates the A-10 Thunderbolt II aircraft, the National Interagency Fire Center is based in the city of Boise and the Boise Airport is used for logistical support. The United States Forest Service also uses Boise Airport as a base for aerial firefighting air tankers during the wildfire season. Boise Airport had 1,487,764 enplaned passengers in 2015, growing from 1,378,352 passengers in 2014, BOI ranked 72nd in the nation in enplanements for 2015. In 1926 the first municipal airport in Boise named Booth Field was built on a bed where the Boise State University campus now stands. The first commercial flight in the United States passed through this airfield on April 26,1926. Varney Airlines began operating out of Boise in 1933, later merging with National Air Transport to become United Airlines. With United Airlines able to trace its roots to Varney, United is recognized as the airline that has operated the longest out of Boise,83 years as of 2009, the airfield also played host to Charles Lindberghs Spirit of St. Louis on September 4,1927. The current airport has its origins in 1936 when Boise began buying and leasing land for the airport, by 1938 Boise had the longest runway in the United States,8,800 feet. The steel hangar for Varney Airlines was moved to the present field in 1939, as aircraft grew the hangar was no longer big enough and was converted into a passenger terminal. It was part of the terminal facility until the completion of a new terminal in 2004. During World War II the Army Air Corps, later Army Air Forces, leased the field for use as a base for B-17 Flying Fortress. More than 6,000 men were stationed there during the war, the field was named Gowen Field in 1941 on July 23, after 1st Lt Paul R. Gowen. Born and raised in Caldwell, he attended the University of Idaho for two years, then obtained an appointment to West Point in 1929, and graduated ninth in his class in 1933. While piloting a twin-engine B-10 bomber in the Army Air Corps, the right engine failed shortly after take-off from Albrook Field, near Panama City. The other two members, navigator and radio operator, survived and crawled from the wreckage with burns. After the war the part of the used by the Army Air Forces was returned to the city
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